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Full text of "Notes from a Private journal of a visit to Egypt and Palestine, by way of Italy and the Mediterranean"

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JFamt i&ecorfc of a 








A CONSIDERABLE period has now elapsed since we 
made our last tour in Egypt and Palestine. During 
this interval we have experienced the most signal 
proofs of the Divine protection and bounty, and 
trusting to the same mercy, in which we have 
ever endeavoured to place our hope and confi- 
dence, we once more turn our eyes to the land 
of our fathers, to the place of their sojourning, 
and to the inheritance of the promises. 

Thursday, November 1, 1838. The preliminary 
arrangements having been completed, we took 
our leave of the many dear friends, whose ardent 
wishes for our welfare, meeting the feelings natu- 
ral to those who are about to enter upon a long, 
and perhaps dangerous journey, gave to the 
moment of departure a sentiment of mingled 
pain and pleasure. We started at two o'clock 
attended by Armstrong, our former courier, whose 
services we engaged, encouraged, by his previous 



assiduity and ability, to expect his continued 

Having reached Park Lane, it was no slight 

comfort to see that ouilfcdear brother B was 

sufficiently in spirits to leave his bed, after a long 
night of suffering. May Heaven restore him to 
perfect health and strength, and give him many 
years of happiness in the bosom of his affectionate 
family. No circumstance is more painful at the 
commencement of a long journey than the neces- 
sity of saying farewell to a friend bowed down 
with sickness, or any other species of affliction. 

Our travelling-carriage and female servant 
were awaiting us, and having partaken of an ex- 
cellent luncheon with some of our dear friends 
who had assembled to witness our departure, 
we took our leave, and proceeded to Vauxhall, 
where the maternal and sisterly greetings of Mrs. 

Montefiore and Mrs. S attended us. Our 

adieus were mingled with prayers for a happy 
re-union; and thus, as must ever be the case in 
this passing scene, the sentiment which most 
powerfully excited our feelings at the present, 
naturally carried us forward, and connected itself 
with the future. 

We find our old re-embellished travelling-car- 
riage replenished with whatever tends to comfort 
and enjoyment, and extremely easy and spacious. 


The heavy state of the roads made us determine 
to pass the night at Sittingbourne. A clear, bright 
moon rendered the last two stages very agreeable, 
and at ten o'clock the good-tempered-looking 
host and hostess, at the George Hotel, welcomed 
our arrival. Tea and eggs furnish our repast, and 
we intend retiring early. Armstrong is, as before , 
thoughtful of what we may require, and Ann, 
our maid, appears extremely good-tempered. 
What have we more to wish for, but that the 
Almighty may accept our thanks, and answer 
our prayers, as well for the happiness of our 
friends as our own safety ? 

Friday, November 2. Ramsgate. Left Sitting- 
bourne at ten. A delightful morning. We met 
many persons travelling post for London ; and so 
in life as in a journey, the various pursuits 
of individuals incline to different roads; and 
while some are but setting out, others are 
hastening to the close and resting-place of 
their course. 

We reached Ramsgate at two o'clock, and pro- 
ceeding at once to the Albion, had the comfort 
to find fires in our rooms, and other proofs of the 
attention of the good mistress of the hotel. The 
harbour is full of shipping, but the effects of the 
late storm have been magnified. 

Saturday, November 3. A boisterous evening, 
B 2 


wind south-west ; and thankful we are for being 
safe on land. Attended synagogue, morning and 

afternoon, and paid a farewell visit to Mr. H 

and Mr. A , sen. 

Sunday, November 4. A dull, cold morning. 
Made arrangements for the journey. Rode to 
East Cliff, and spoke to Mrs. Star about the 
pheasants, the present of our departed and 
lamented friend, M. de Rothschild. She does not 
succeed in the management of them, the numbers 
having decreased from twenty-one to eight, a 
grievous mortality in our feathered stock, so 
much prized for the donor's sake. 

November 5. Journey to Dover. The rain con- 
tinued through out the night, and has not entirely 

ceased. I accompanied M this morning 

to synagogue, to beseech of the Almighty, in 
the house of prayer, that same protection and 
mercy which He has ever bestowed upon us, 
and which we again feel so necessary to the 
happy accomplishment of our renewed visit to 

Italy and the Holy Land. Mr. A , sen., was 

present, in order to complete the ten, and join in 
prayer. This was a mark of great kindness at his 
age, (verging on ninety,) and with his infirmities. 

With the warm expressions of many friends, 
we quitted Ramsgate at a quarter past one. 
Mr. M and his brother accompanied us 


till we reached the river which separates the 
Isle of Thanet. There they bade us a reluctant 
farewell ! We reached Dover at twenty minutes 
before four ; and during a walk on the jetty, met 

Lord K ~, who has just returned from the 

Continent with his lady and children. His lord- 
ship gave us no flattering account of his excursion, 
but spoke much of the fatigues and annoyances 
attending it, concluding with an expression of 
delight at again meeting English acquaintances, 
and treading on English ground. Our inten- 
tion of taking a different route through Italy, 
avoiding the Tyrol, consoles us. 

Tuesday, November 6. The sun is shedding 
his enlivening rays with the warmth and bright- 
ness of summer. This, after a fortnight's stormy 
wind and rain, is most auspicious, and may be 
regarded as a fresh instance of the goodness of 
that God who has, through life, so largely 
crowned us with his blessings. 

The English government steamer being ap- 
pointed to leave as early as seven, and lying off 
the shore, we have resolved to take our passage 

by the French boat, Estafette, Captain Y 

a good sea-boat. There is not a ripple on the 
water, nor could we have chosen a finer day. Our 
carriage being put on board at eleven, we embarked 
once again for foreign climes. Several friends 


greeted us from the pier, and wafted their adieus. 
The number of our fellow-passengers consisted of 
only five gentlemen. We did not make way till 
about twelve o'clock. When clear of the harbour 
two sails were hoisted, and as the vessel cut its 
path through the deep, we could not help admiring 
the cleanness of the deck the brightness of the 
brass appurtenances, everything vying, in short, 
with the smartness and propriety of an English 

Calais was reached after a passage of two 
hours and forty-seven minutes. Familiar faces 
soon presented themselves, and I had so entirely 
escaped the usual annoyances of the passage, that 
I could look, better than ever before, on the lively 
and not unpicturesque scene which the entrance 
to Calais offers to the eye of a stranger. We 
found in the friendly conversation of our fellow- 
passengers, among whom was a Comte Mesnard, 
and in the prompt civility of the attendants 
at Quillacq's, fresh proofs of the kindly nature 
of the French. 

Time seems to have vanished since our last 
visit. We took a walk whilst dinner was pre- 
paring, the repast consisting of some fish, and a 
cold chicken brought with us. A letter from Mr. 

H and one from Baron A awaited us. 

The former is expected here to-morrow. We 


passed the evening most agreeably in writing 

Quillacq's Hotel, November 7. Calais. A rainy 
morning makes us more sensible of the blessing of 

yesterday's passage. M walked on the pier 

before breakfast, and I afterwards accompanied 

him to meet Mr. D , whom we expected with 

the mail, at half-past eleven. Owing, however, 
to the shallowness of the water in the harbour 
the vessel was obliged to lie out in the bay, and 
land her passengers in small boats. A shower 
prevented us from remaining to receive our 
friend, and we hastened to the hotel with- 1 
out him. Shortly after he made his appearance, 
fatigued from his night's journey, but more so 
from a tempestuous and anxious passage. A 
warm bath and the toilette, with a good repast, 
proved salutary restoratives. It was difficult to 
suppress a sad recollection of the circumstances 
under which we last met : but it often becomes a 
duty to obliterate past sorrows in the enjoyment 
of present mercies. 

Our evening passed in rational and social con- 
versation, plans for the journey generally min- 
gling themselves with the other topics which en- 
gaged our thoughts, 

Thursday, November 8. A young Greek who 
arrived here two days since, showed us his 


fine gold jacket, and though but eleven years old, 
according to his own statement, possesses a 
scimitar. He was purchased by an English gen- 
tleman, just arrived from Alexandria. He looks 
a sharp lad, and has already made proficiency in 
Italian. No doubt he will become an important 
personage in his master's household. 

We left Calais at half-past eleven, and in the 
course of our journey met the. Duke and Duchess 

of B on their return home. The roads 

were extremely muddy, and some parts of the 
pavee being out of repair, no slight danger must 
attend travelling in the night. We reached Cas- 
sel about six o'clock, and put up at the neat* 
clean Hotel d'Angleterre. Some excellent fish 
was provided for our dinner, and as it was our 

first day's journey, M considered it proper to 

call for champagne to do honour to the health 
of absent friends. The visitors' book being 
presented, we were not a little amused at the 
eulogiums with which it abounded. 

Friday, November 9. Lille. A proper Lord 
Mayor's day. Cassel commands a fine view of 
the surrounding country, but the continued rain 
would not allow of my enjoying the beautiful 
prospects presented on the descent of the hill. 
We were en route for Lille at twenty minutes 
past nine. At the entrance of the town our pass- 


ports were demanded, and we proceeded to the 
Hotel de 1'Europe, where we were ushered into the 
spacious apartments, said to have been arranged 
for George the Fourth on his visit to Hanover. 

We observed the cultivation of beetroot to be 
very general in this neighbourhood, and that the 
number of women labouring in the fields far 
exceeded, as in other parts of the Continent, that 
of men. Numerous windmills give a peculiar 
aspect to the environs. They are principally used 
in the grinding of linseed and rapeseed for the 
manufacture of oil. The town is now lighted by 
the Continental Gas Company, but the rage of 
competition is such, that offers are made to light 
the city free of expense, for the privilege of 
obtaining the private lights. 

Saturday Evening, November 10. Lille. Mr. 

B called yesterday evening, and brought a 

gazette, wherein were noticed the remarkable 
events which had happened on preceding anni- 
versaries of the day. Among the occurrences 
thus considered worthy of record, was the con- 
ferring of knighthood, by the Queen of England, 
on Sir Moses Montefiore. 

The synagogue is a pretty building, and we 
found the service attended by about a dozen 
gentlemen and eight ladies. During the after- 
noon we walked to the gas-works, to which we 


were conducted by Mr. D . The establish- 
ment is extensive, and supplies a great part of 
the town with light. Lille is in a flourishing 
state, among the proofs of which are the appear- 
ance of many new buildings, and the pavement 
for foot-passengers. 

Sunday, November 11. Ghent. A rainy 
morning. Left Lille at half-past nine. As the 
country presented but an unvaried and unpic- 
turesque continuation of cultivated land, and 
the weather was dull, I amused myself with 
reading ' Leila.' I admire Mr. Bulwer's de- 
lineations, but not his sentiments, which give a 
colouring to the character of a people tending to 
support prejudices, so galling to the feelings of 
those who are as sensible to honour, generosity, 
and virtue, as those of more prosperous nations. 
It may be policy to exaggerate faults, but is it 
justice to create them solely to gratify opponents ? 
It is too much the practice of authors engaged in 
the production of light literature, to utter sen- 
timents existing only in their own imaginations, 
and by ascribing them to others, to disseminate a 
baneful prejudice against multitudes, who feel 
indignant at finding themselves the subjects of 
unjust suspicion. 

We reached this town at five o'clock, and drove 
to the Hotel de la Poste, having encountered on 

GHENT. 11 

entering Belgium no annoyance either at the 
Douane, or at the passport-office. 

Monday, November 12. Hotel de la Poste. 
Ghent. The day has been cold, but fine. 

November 13. Brussels. Again fine, bat cold. 
We called on Mr. D , who has an ex- 
cellent house, furnished in a superior manner. 
I was greatly pleased with the conservatory, 
leading from the drawing-room. The collection 
of camellias is numerous and choice. Several 
family pictures adorn the sitting-room, among 

which is that of our friend Mr. W. A , 

painted by an Italian artist. Mrs. D accom- 
panied me to the Cathedral. The architecture of 
the edifice is grand and imposing, and the aisles 
are adorned with many pieces of fine sculptured 
marble. There was a grand assemblage last Sun- 
day, at the consecration of a new bishop. The 
preceding prelate, a young man, died, it is said, 
from the excitement attending his sudden rise 
from the station of a humble parish priest to 
that of Bishop of Ghent. Insanity and a pre- 
mature death were the immediate consequences 
of his envied elevation. 

Could we have sent our carriage by the railroad, 
we should have availed ourselves of that mode of 
conveyance ; but, at the intercession of the post- 
masters, gentlemen's carriages are are present 


prohibited from travelling by them. We reached 
this city at a quarter past five, and found most 
agreeable and spacious apartments at the Hotel. 
A brisk fire soon made us forget the coldness of 
the temperature, and we enjoyed from our win- 
dows the cheerful spectacle presented by the 
Grande Place, well lighted with gas. 

King Leopold opened the sittings of the 
Chambers to-day. We shall hear the speech 
to-morrow. The military band is now calling 
the troops to the barracks, and as the fine 
martial notes peal through the stillness of the 
evening, the mind is impressed with a thousand 
stirring associations. 

Wednesday, November 14. Hotel de V Europe. 
Brussels. We are delighted with our apartments, 
situated as they are in the Place Royale, and 
commanding a side-view of the park, wanting, 
moreover, neither elegancies nor comforts. The 
houses in Brussels are handsome, lofty, and uni- 
formly built, and being painted of a yellow white, 
have a neat as well as handsome appearance. 

Education keeps pace with other improvements 
in Belgium. We yesterday observed several public 
schools, and poor children with books in their 
hands. This is the fruit of peace, but the neces- 
sity of supporting a standing army still produces 
no slight portion of distress and discontent. 


Having paid visits to some friends living 
beyond the barrier, we drove round the town, 
and amused ourselves with the agreeable variety 
presented by the Boulevards, the botanical gar- 
dens, and a new area consisting of noble houses, 
and which it is intended to dignify by the title 
of La Ville de Leopold. 

The synagogue is an extremely neat build- 
ing, and government contributes five hundred 
francs annually to its support. Government also 
appoints the spiritual head of the congregation 
and the readers; and there is a school for the 
poor, who receive various kinds of instruction, 
among which music holds no insignificant place. 
Sermons in German are delivered weekly by the 
Rabbi. About eighty families of our persuasion 
reside in Brussels, but some of them are far 
from being distinguished for orthodoxy. 

Thursday, November 15. We left Brussels 
about nine o'clock. A fine forest of noble elms 
soon changed the hitherto monotonous scenery. 
Soft hills rose in the distance, and handsome 
buildings, bordered by trees, still noble, though 
divested of their genial foliage, added a fresh 
grace to the landscape. This was even increased 
by the long lines of labourers employed in con- 
structing the railroad ; the busy scene presented 
by which continually reminded us of the mighty 


impulse given in our age to the progress of 

Not a post-carriage has appeared on the road, 
but heavily laden waggons, shaking the high- 
way to its foundations, have amply convinced us 
of the necessity of the pave*e in the centre. We 
were frequently obliged to make way for their 
passing, and the jerk into the deep ruts on the 
road side proved a formidable trial to the 
strength of our springs, which at length gave 
way, in charitable consideration of innumerable 
blacksmiths who surrounded the carriage at 
every change of horses. 

At six o'clock we reached Liege, and found 
comfortable rooms at the Pavilion. Liege is 
lighted with gas by a company established in 
the town. I ought to have mentioned that the 
Hotel de Ville at Louvain is one of the most 
beautiful Gothic structures in Belgium : it has 
been lately repaired, and richly deserves the 
attention of the traveller. 

Friday, November 16. Left Liege for Aix-la- 
Chapelle at ten o'clock. A rainy morning. On our 
entering the Prussian dominions, no further 
trouble was given us than that which consisted in 

the mere opening of the box containing M 's 

uniform. The passing of an artificial barrier, 
separating one country from another, is generally 


attended with emotions of surprise. A sudden 
change is at once discoverable in the physiog- 
nomy of the people ; and yet more striking are 
the various intonations and forms of expression 
which fall upon the ear of the stranger, who sees 
nothing to account for the mystery, but the 
simple fact that he has passed from one side 
of an invisible boundary to another. Happy 
surely will be the times when one religion, one 
language, and one heart shall exist among the 
nations of the world ! 

We reached Aix-la-Chapelle at half-past three, 
and found excellent apartments at Le Grand Mo- 
narque, having been first set down at Le Grand 
Hotel, which was extremely dull. I found myself 
too indisposed in the evening to appear at the 
dinner table, but a few hours quiet enabled me 
to join the party at tea. Aix-la-Chapelle is 
lighted with gas, the works, which have been 
established only a few months, exhibiting every 
sign of skilful arrangement and success. 

Saturday, November 17. Aix-la-Chapelle. 
M - went to synagogue. He was greatly 
pleased with the discourse delivered after the 
service by the rabbi, a young man about twenty- 
eight years of age, and whose address and man- 
ner were both agreeable and impressive. He 
spoke in German. The congregation consists of 


nearly forty families. A new synagogue is being 
erected, and will be finished in a few weeks. A 
deputation of three gentlemen from the syna- 
gogue waited upon .us, soliciting a contribution 
towards the gas-fittings for that building, having 
previously written on the subject. M pre- 
sented them with a handsome chandelier. 

In Aix-la-Chapelle, as in most places, the poor 
are more numerous than the rich, but there are 
few appearances of absolute destitution. French 
is spoken by most persons here, and English is 
becoming scarcely less general. Education is 
obtained on such moderate terms that none need 
remain uninstructed. 

The Hotel du Grand Monarque is a very ex- 
tensive establishment, making up no less than 
one hundred and fifty beds, and is still being 
enlarged. During the season, which continues 
four months, it is said to be completely full. 

Sunday, November 18. Aix-la-Chapelle. A 
continuance of rain prevents our walking. 

We visited the baths. Some are very hand- 
some, being ornamented with various coloured 
marbles. The hot springs, which are chiefly sul- 
phurous, are said to prove extremely efficacious 
in cutaneous, rheumatic, and paralytic affections. 

Our carriage has undergone a complete repair 
after the injuries which it suffered from the pave- 


ment and rugged roads. Armstrong thinks the 
charge of seventy-one francs very moderate. We 
are debating whether to take the way to Lyons 
by Strasbourg, or to retrace our steps to Belgium, 
and thence proceed to Paris. Maps, books, and 
opinions have all been severally consulted, and 
at length we have decided upon proceeding to 

I dislike the stoves which are used here. The 
fire is almost obscured from view, and the coal 
emits an unpleasant odour. The shops have 
been kept open during a great part of the day, 
a circumstance which would have surprised me, 
the country being Protestant, but for the large 
proportion of Koman Catholic inhabitants. 

Monday, November 19. Cologne. At twenty 
minutes past ten we quitted Aix-la-Chapelle. 
The rain did not cease during the journey. We 
entered the post-house at Bergheim, and found 
music and singing, but no resting place for the 
traveller. On being directed, however, to the 
Hotel opposite, we were shown into warm, clean 
rooms, and partook of some excellent refresh- 
ment. The master, a very polite person, exhi- 
bited the honours he had received at Waterloo, 
and said that many English families had remained 
at his house. Among them were the Duchess of 
Gloucester and Lord Londonderry. 


From Bergheim the state of the roads began to 
improve, having undergone, as our host described 
it, some palliatives, improvements effected by a 
little band of labourers engaged for the purpose. 

We arrived at the KaiserlicheHoff at a quarter 
past six, and had tea and fried haddock, with ex- 
cellent potatoes. The house is extremely com- 
fortable ; but experience recommends a choice of 
apartments in which the sitting-room and cham- 
ber are adjoining. It is our intention to go to- 
morrow to Coblentz by the steam-boat, which 
starts at seven in the morning, and will teach us 
our first lesson in early rising. The time of year 
is not the most auspicious for this reform, but 
we shall probably gain in health what we lose in 

Tuesday, November 20. Called at five. Mr. 

and Mrs. D would not suffer us to depart 

without joining our breakfast- table. We reached 
the boat in excellent time, and found it a spacious 
vessel, comfortably and handsomely fitted up. It 
belongs to the Cologne Company ; the captain 
speaks English, and the accommodations reach 
almost to luxury. There were from fifteen to 
twenty passengers, ladies and gentlemen. Some 
were landed at different villages on the Rhine. 
As the day was cold, we amused ourselves with 
writing ; but the pavilion seeming damp, we re- 


paired to the cabin, invitingly warm and elegant. 
The passengers' dinner consisted of a great variety 
of dishes, and was what we should term in 
English, luxurious. 

Though wanting its summer tints, the majestic 
scenery of the Rhine presents objects of surpass- 
ing grandeur. What they lose of beauty under 
the winter sky, they gain in that stern and solemn 
sublimity, which affects the imagination even 
more forcibly than the brighter glories of a softer 

The passage surpassed our expectation. We 
reached Coblentz by five o'clock, and took up our 
abode for the night at the Hotel de Belle Vue. 

November 21. Hotel Belle Vue. Coblentz. 
Arose at half -past five. Thermometer in the car- 
riage 31^. Took coffee, and were on board the 
steam-boat again at seven. All our yesterday 
fellow passengers had left. To-day there are but 
two gentlemen and a lady, besides ourselves, in 
the cabin. A good fire is kept up, so that it is 
exceedingly comfortable, and our pleasurable 
sensations are increased by an excellent break- 
fast of chocolate. 

The scenery as we advanced became more and 

more imposing : stupendous rocks, covered with 

vines and shrubs, overhanging the stream, and 

throwing their dark masses of shade along its 

C 2 


rapid waters, inspiring a feeling of awe as well 
as admiration. 

We reached Mayence after a very comfortable 
passage, at four o'clock, and went to the Rhenish 
Hotel. The streets of this town seem badly 
paved and dirty ; but it contains some well-built 
houses, and may in summer present a neater and 
gayer aspect. There is a fine quay, and the town 
generally affords great facilities for commerce. I 
observed several vessels laden with corn, sacks 
of feathers, and other articles of traffic. 

Thursday, November 22. Mayence. As the 
boat for Mannheim does not leave till eight, we 
have not been so hurried this morning, though 
still obliged to rise by candle-light. We are now 
on board the Stockholm, not quite so large a boat 
as the Leopold, but equally comfortable, and well 
fitted up. There is no fatigue in this mode of 
travelling, and the banks of the Rhine continue 
to present, with their numerous villages, castles, 
and bridges, objects of perpetual interest. We 
are now passing the pretty town of Nuremberg, 
where the superior wine of that name is made, 
the scenery being varied at this spot by several 
hills and a flying bridge. 

The sky is dull and gloomy : not a gleam of 
sun ; and there is a strange and romantic feeling 
inspired by the sound of the bell, as it swings to 


and fro, to warn the boats or villagers of our 

My German has obtained a compliment from 
the waiter, who says that I speak it like a native. 
At least the little I know is found useful. 

We have passed the town of Worms. The view 
of its fine old towers, seen well from the river, 
reminded us of our friends of that name in Lon- 
don. At half-past four the boat reached Mann- 
heim. The long avenues of trees and pretty 
buildings, together with the account given us by 
persons on board of its well-paved streets and 
agreeable walks, might well have enticed us to 
enter ; but the favourable change of the atmo- 
sphere, and our desire to arrive in good time to- 
morrow at Strasbourg, have determined us to 
pursue our route. 

Armstrong having hastened to order post-horses, 
in the course of half-an-hour we took leave of the 
Boat Stadt Coblentz, and were again seated in the 
carriage. Beautiful and almost startling, was the 
contrast of the spectacle which the sky presented 
to what it had offered a few hours before. Then 
a mass of gloomy fog had involved everything in 
its folds : now the young moon was shedding on 
all sides its benignant rays, and in a short time 
the whole immense canopy of heaven appeared 
studded with countless stars. The brilliancy of 


this glorious scene would not allow us to com- 
mence preparations for the night so early as we 
had intended. We reached Speyer in good time, 
and less fatigued than might have been expected 
from the appearance of the poor post-horses. We 
began to find, in the latter part of this journey, 
the advantage of our travelling-bed. 

Friday, November 23. Strasbourg. Thanks to 
the Almighty ! we arrived here in safety after a 
night's journey ; somewhat weary, it is true, but 
greatly gratified at the nice appearance of the 
Hotel de Paris, and the very handsome suite of 
apartments ready for our reception. At one o'clock 
we were partaking of a breakfast of excellent tea, 
rolls, and boiled trout. Our servants had borne 
the nocturnal trip with their usual good temper. 
We engaged a valet-de-place to accompany us 
round the town. He also conducted us to the 
synagogue, not very distant from the hotel, 
and which we found to be a very respectable 
building, well-lighted, and attended by a nume- 
rous congregation a portion of which was formed 
of ladies. There is a choir of boys dressed in 
costume similar to that worn by the choristers at 
Bordeaux. The chief rabbi and reader are ap- 
pointed and paid by the government. It is only 
two years since the building was finished, and 
is the freehold property of the community. 


Saturday Evening, November 24. Strasbourg. 
Grateful for having passed a most satisfactory 
day. The valet-de-place was in readiness at 
eight o'clock to escort us to synagogue, where 
we found a yet more numerous congregation than 

on the preceding evening. M was called to 

the reading of the law, and made an offering. 
The chief rabbi read the prayer for the King and 
Royal Family. We were much impressed with 
the beauty of the chanting, but it seemed to me 
that the prayers were abridged, a consequence, 
perhaps, of the reforms of the age. At twelve we 
walked to see the cathedral, a building of great 
antiquity, and of exceedingly handsome architec- 
ture. Its tower is of immense height, and exqui- 
site in style and proportions. Both this, and the 
curious clock, which formed one of the marvels 
of the edifice, were some time since much injured 
by lightning. Repairs are in progress, which it 
will require two years more to complete. The 
stained glass in this cathedral is the richest I 
have seen. 

We next visited the church of St. Thomas, an 
ancient Protestant structure, and where we saw 
the beautiful marble monument erected by Louis 
XV. to the memory of Marshal Saxe, who died 
at the age of fifty-five, in 1777. There is another 
curious object in this church. It is the ingeni- 


otisly sculptured tomb of a Count of Nassau, and 
which was discovered by the workmen engaged in 
repairing the church. The embalmed bodies of 
the count and his daughter, which formerly re- 
posed in this costly resting place, are now to be 
seen in an adjoining chapel, inclosed in glass 
coffins, and habited in the costume of the eleventh 
century. As we were contemplating here the 
nothingness of life, and this vanity of death, the 
tones of the organ, which the man had just come 
to tune, suddenly broke upon our ears, and helped 
to raise our thoughts above the gloom of mere 

Our next visit was to the arsenal. The number 
of brass cannon, bombs, and mortars appeared 
to me sufficient to destroy all Europe. 

The guide now presented himself : an old sol- 
dier, with a somewhat Austrian countenance, who 
had served in all Napoleon's campaigns, and in 
his own battalion, when engaged in Egypt, Italy, 
&c. He unlocked the armoury, where spears, 
muskets, pistols, cuirasses, were arranged so 
as to form various devices, and covering in 
sparkling array the walls and ceilings of two 
immense rooms. At the end of the second was a 
bust of Louis Philippe, the features of which were 
now lit up by the sun's rays, which aided, in no 
slight degreej the effect of the decorations, the 


ancient armour, and other splendid memorials of 
war that surrounded the marble. 

The hour of dinner had arrived, and the streets 
being mostly paved with asphalte, easy to the 
feet, we walked through the promenade to the 
hotel, and thence to the restaurateur. 

Sunday, November 25. Left Strasbourg at 
eleven o'clock. The greater part of the shops 
were closed, half the population being Protestant. 
Having passed the strong fortifications, and the 
bridge over the river Ille, an excellent raised road 
conducted us across an expensive plain, and by the 
aid of good horses and careful postillions, we pur- 
sued our journey with ease and rapidity. A 
brilliant sun cheered us on our way. As we ap- 
proached the department of the Upper Rhine, 
stupendous mountains began to appear, and con- 
tinued on our right till we reached Colmar, the 
place of destination for the night. Ruins of 
castles crowned the summits of most of the hills, 
and innumerable villages sloped down to their 
base : snow had fallen a few weeks since, and 
some of it still remained to vary the colouring of 
the picturesque scenery. The plain itself was 
ornamented with vineyards, and cheered the mind 
with the prospect of coming plenty, as did the 
Indian corn, growing abundantly under the very 
walls of the town. This day's journey of eight 


posts was much the easiest we have made. 
Reached a comfortable hotel at nine minutes past 
five o'clock. 

Monday, November 26. L'ile stir de Doubs. 
Left this place at two minutes past seven. A de- 
lightful morning, the sun rising with unwonted 
brilliancy. The chain of mountains forms a boun- 
dary to the right of an extensive plain, innumer- 
able villages diversifying the scene, romantically 
crowned with ruins of castles, which speak of 
times of yore. The road continued excellent as 
far as Belfort, a strongly fortified town, where 
art and nature combine to resist a siege. At this 
town we stopped to take some refreshment. The 
Salle-d-manger being warm, it sufficed for a short 
visit of an hour for coffee. The weather now 
changed, snow began to fall, and continued in- 
creasing the whole afternoon. The horses ad- 
vanced with difficulty, and as the road became 
slippery and mountainous, we stopped at Tavey, 
to have them rough-shod. We were four hours 
and thirty-four minutes going two posts and a 
half, the postillions walking most of the way. 
The humble accommodation at the inn was com- 
paratively comfortable : a good fire is an accept- 
able object, after a snowy, mountainous journey ; 
staircase and floors must be disregarded. 

Tuesday, November 27. Hotel de Paris. 


Besan^on. Terrified at the road pierced along 
the side of a stupendous rock, ascending and 
descending, covered with snow. A fearful pre- 
cipice lay on the right, a rapid, foaming river be- 
neath. With all my courage, I could not sup- 
press a scream as the postillions trotted down the 
windings, and my request to be allowed to walk 
was unavailing. How glad I was whenever a 
waggon appeared : it seemed to assure one's safety, 
as did the cheerful, good-tempered countenances 
of the conductors. Fortunately it has ceased to 
snow, and the cold is not so severe. As we 
advance, I can better enjoy the beautiful and 
magnificent scenery, which, notwithstanding its 
wintry garb, strikes the beholder with awe and 
admiration. How thankfully I beheld the road 
now protected by parapets and hedges ; and then 
the widening plain and sloping vineyards ! The 
Doubs is navigated by the assistance of locks at 
several distances. We observed many barges 
passing the falls in the river, which without the 
locks would form insurmountable obstacles to 
navigation. The snow has now almost dis- 
appeared. At a quarter past five we reached this 
strongly fortified town, and found the hotel 
superior to that of last night. The landlady 
wishes us to remain to-morrow to see the beauties 
of the town. 


Wednesday, November 28. Poligny. -After a 
stormy journey over the Jura mountain, and along 
a difficult road, we, with the blessing of the 
Almighty, arrived here in safety at five o'clock. 
The wind rose so high that it compelled M 
to descend from the carriage and walk. And 
dreading lest the vehicle, though pretty substan- 
tial, should be blown over, I disregarded the dis- 
figurement of my hat and cloak, and joined him in 
his walk down the descent, sheltered behind the 
carriage. I thus felt comparatively secure, and, 
oh ! how I commiserated the poor old men and 
women, who, laden with bundles of wood, were 
toiling patiently over the mountain in face of the 
boisterous gale, fatigued and worn ! Can we who 
possess the luxuries of life be sufficiently thankful 
to that Almighty power who has bestowed them 
on us ? Let us study to merit them, and when in 
security never forget the dangers and troubles 
that have presented themselves in the progress of 
life. Now seated by a comfortable fire, with an 
affectionate companion, the table nicely prepared 
for tea, and kettle boiling, the rattling of the 
windows and boisterous sounds make me the more 
sensible of present enjoyments and the storm we 
have just escaped. Surely the German saying is 
true, Getheilte Freud? ist ganze Freude ; getheilter 
Schmerz ist halber Schmerz! 

BOURG. 29 

There is a new road nearly completed, to 
avoid the mountain we have just crossed. How 
great an advantage to future travellers in this 
part of France ! Ann praises the present fille 
f/r c/tambre, as she understands her French 
so much better than others we have met with. 
The other evening at Colmar, when she said, 
" Mademoiselle Lampe de nuit sil mm plait ! 
Comment ! voulcz TOUS un verre de feau de 
ric ? " This made Ann for the first time angry ; 
she said, she really would not understand. The 
horses and postillions have been very good to- 
day, and we found them ready at the different 
stations, the conductor of the diligence having 
ordered them at our request. 

Thursday, November 29. Bourg. A fine 
morning after a stormy night. We were in the 
carriage by twenty minutes past seven. Ther- 
mometer 52, which on Monday was 32. Very 
few hills : good road over a vast plain, richly 
cultivated. The sun was so powerful that we 
required the shades down almost throughout the 
day, and the country was enlivened by cattle 
grazing, often tended by children only. A flat 
broad-brimmed black lace hat is here worn by 
the country women, very different from any I 
have seen elsewhere. Everywhere the roads are 
undergoing repair, and in some parts being 


widened. We passed some extensive salt-works. 
The towns are adorned by public fountains ; 
and the French women still continue the custom 
of washing in the public stream. On setting oft' 
from the last station, one of the horses began 
kicking going down a descent, but ceased imme- 
diately on the slipper being fixed to the wheel, 
which is performed without the servant's getting 
down an excellent invention, and only requiring 
care. Arrived at this town at five o'clock. 

Friday, November 30. Bourg. A catarrh, 
which troubled me exceedingly last night and 
disturbed my rest, is not much better this morn- 
ing ; but an extra piece of new flannel will 
I trust prevent any inconvenience from our con- 
tinuing our journey at the early hour of twenty 
minutes before six. The day was just dawning 
in all its refulgent glory. The sun breaking 
through the dark clouds, and suffusing them with 
amber, purple, emerald, sapphire, and other tints 
more brilliant than art could possibly imitate. 
But, as if to teach mankind that the brightest 
colours soonest fade, the sky quickly became 
overcast, and in the forenoon we had a con- 
tinuance of light showers. To-day's journey 
carried us along the continuance of a vast plain, 
with a view of distant mountains. The road is 
not yet in complete order, the pave having 

LYONS. 31 

yielded to the Mac -Adam system. For a few 
miles we had an extra horse, the ascent requir- 
ing additional force. All the towns we passed 
through appeared dirty and out of repair ; the 
few new houses building were of mud, supported 
by a few planks and stones at the base. From 
Mirabel, we ascended a steep hill, and soon 
gained a fine view of Lyons, its surrounding 
gardens, rivers, and mountains, and at twenty 
minutes before three were set down at the 
Hotel de Provence. 

Saturday Evening, December 1. Hotel de 
Provence. Lyons. A letter announcing my dear 
brother's continued illness gave us great pain. 
It is impossible to enjoy the pleasures of the 
world when those we regard are deprived of 

them. M went to synagogue. I did not 

accompany him, finding myself hoarse after the 
soreness on my chest. Towards noon I im- 
proved, and the sun invited me to take a nearer 
view of the handsome equestrian statue of Louis 
XIV., in the Place Belle-cour, a sight of which 
and of the neighbouring mountains, we gained 
from our window. The troops were performing 
their evolutions in the square, after completing 
which they filed off in martial array. The pro- 
menade along the quay presents a busy scene. 
Numberless casks and bales were about to be 


embarked on the rivers, the Rhone, the Saone, 
the Loire, which afford such great facilities to 
the commerce of this city. The streets are badly 
paved and worse kept. To-day a religious pro- 
cession was to have taken place, by order of the 
archbishop, but the people would not allow it to 
enter the gates of the city. Multitudes have 
assembled, and insulted the priests, while they 
demolished the figure representing the saint 
intended to be honoured. At one o'clock I went 

with M to afternoon prayers. A . Mr. H. 

R , President du Conservatoire a Lyons, escorted 

us to the neighbouring restaurateur, where dinner 
was ordered. This gentleman politely urged us* 
to dine with him. He remained with us during 
the greater part of our repast. This did not 
consist of the most luxurious kind of viands ; 
but we were satisfied, considering the shortness 
of the notice to prepare it, 

Sunday, December 2. Hotel de Provence. Lyons. 
A rainy morning. All the shops are closed. 
Armstrong is returned from the post without 
letters. We are very anxious to hear from home. 
It is most perplexing to be on a journey in a state 
of anxious uncertainty with regard to sick friends. 
We know not whether to proceed or return. 

This day admitted of no walk. We rode to 
Mr. R 's to dinner, and having engaged 


a box at the opera, which commences at six, we 
went thither at half-past. During our repast 
our host entertained us with anecdotes of the 
inhabitants. The theatre is spacious, not ele- 
gantly fitted up, but well lighted with gas. The 
house was full, and a new ballet was presented, 
called the Deux Roses ; both the orchestra, 
dancing, and costumes being very superior. At 
half-past ten it was over. The box for four 
persons was only fifteen francs. 

Monday, December 3. Lyons. A fine warm 

morning. Walked with M over the quay to 

the Hotel de Yille. Saw the museum : greatly 
pleased with the pictures. A large painting by 
Victor Orsel, of Moses being presented to Pha- 
raoh, and another by Rubens. Tasso in a 
Lunatic Hospital, by Henry Richard, (fine light 
and shade,) and a head by Rembrant, fine 
specimens of art. 

Tuesday, December 4. Hotel de Provence. 
Lyons. Walked over the new suspension bridge, 
called Pont Palais de Justice. A new palace is 
now being erected opposite this bridge. Entered 
the cathedral, and the chapel, where Saint 
Exupere, lately presented by Pope Gregory XVI. 
to the city of Lyons, was surrounded by persons 
to take a view of the martyr, who lay, decorated 
in white satin and gold, in a glass coffin. 



By the existing law of France, religious 
public processions are prohibited. The Arch- 
bishop of Lyons, however, thought proper to 
have a public display of the Pope's muni- 
ficence; but the prefect fearing lest some dis- 
turbance might be produced by the infringement 
on present regulations, sent a troop of soldiers to 
prevent the procession entering the gates of the 
city. The multitude had, at an early hour, col- 
lected in great numbers. The priests became 
alarmed, and retired round the private entrance 
to the cathedral, and the saint was at last peace- 
ably deposited in the chapel. We heard some 
soldiers, who had just gratified their curiosity 
by a look, say, laughingly to each other, " Oh, 
c'est ne rien que cire" In the evening went to the 
Gymnase theatre, and were well entertained. 
Armstrong and Ann went also. 

Wednesday, December 5. I am thankful for a 
fine morning for our excursion upon the Rhone,' 
but the rain of the preceding week has so raised 
the water, which flows abundantly into this river, 
that the captain doubted for some time whether 
the passage under the various chain-bridges 
would be practicable. It was at length agreed to 
attempt it, and at half-past nine we were on 
board the Comete, French steam-boat. Another 
carriage besides our own was on deck, and more 


than a hundred passengers, of whom some were 
English. I wrapped myself up pretty warmly, as 
I found something more than a gentle breeze 
blowing, and I had been suffering from cold for 
some days past. The vociferating calls of the 
captain and men, till I became used to them, made 
me almost imagine that something alarming was 
about to happen ; but after the arrangements had 
all been made, and breakfast finished, we found 
the cheerful song, laughing conversation, and 
good-tempered countenances of the crew very 
agreeable. The bustle and litter of the luggage 
led Armstrong to suggest that the cabin would be 
preferable to the deck : however, we found so nu- 
merous an assemblage there, and the ceiling so 
low, that we soon returned to old quarters. I 
amused myself with the conversation of a French 
lady and her little boy, till the approach to the 
first bridge, when we all ran out of the way of the 
ropes and chimney, which was to be lowered in 
order to clear the arch. This being safely accom- 
plished, we resumed our seats. The mountainous 
scenery, crowned by various old castles and mo- 
nasteries, frequent villages, vineyards, wherever 
nature favoured the industry of man, and perpen- 
dicular quarries, were objects sufficient to amuse 
the eye, as the rapid current impelled us on at the 
rate of fifteen miles an hour. The fourth bridge 
D 2 


now became an object of alarm, it being so low to 
the water, that for some time it was doubted 
whether we should be able to pass. The anxiety 
of the passengers, who had all assembled at the 
head of the vessel whilst the height of water was 
being measured, was intense. At last it was as- 
certained that there were four inches to spare, 
and the captain resolved on proceeding. With 
expressions and intimations of fear from many 
we cleared the bridge in safety, and again the 
mind passed from agitation to tranquillity. The 
number of new suspension-bridges over the 
several rivers in this province, undertaken by 
companies, must greatly facilitate the intercourse 
of the various districts and commercial enterprise. 
It is to be regretted that these elegant structures 
were not better considered in respect to the rising 
of the waters of so rapid a current as the Rhone. 
Much delay and uneasiness might thereby have 
been avoided. Perhaps this error may yet be 
corrected. It was four o'clock before we reached 
Valence, two hours later than usual. The boat 
was consequently not expected at the hotel this 
evening, and the bustle of preparing dinner for 
the Table d'Hote, &c. and chambers for a greater 
number of visitors than usual, immediately com- 
menced. Armstrong had run off on the first stop- 
ping of the vessel, to take possession of the best 


room for us, so that we found the wood-fire 
blazing, and tea already prepared. A plate of 
macaroni and hot potatoes soon added to the 
acceptable repast ; and as we are to be on board 
to-morrow by six o'clock, we retired early, but 
not to rest, repose being effectually banished by 
the noise of heavy footsteps, loud calling of 
gar on a,n<ifemme de chambre, and the conversation 
of some of the more contented guests, prolonged 
till a late hour. When Ann rapped at the door 
at four o'clock, I had had so little sleep that I 
requested her to ask whether the captain did not 
think it too boisterous to depart ! 

Thursday, December 6. Avignon. Thanks to 
that all-merciful Power, whose goodness towards 
us has been manifest in so many instances, we ar- 
rived at this town in safety at two o'clock, after a 
cold and windy passage : I was, however, well 
protected in the carriage, and most of the com- 
pany took refuge in the cabin. Occasionally I 
attempted to walk the deck, but as speedily made 

my retreat. My dear M , for the most part, 

was my companion, and several of our yesterday's 
acquaintance sociably entered into conversation 
at the carriage door. Among them were the 
Bishop of Nancy, a man of fine intelligent coun- 
tenance, and his chaplain ; and an Italian gentle- 
man, who, with his lady and two young sons, are 


on their return to Milan, after some absence in 
England. They informed us that his grace was 
proceeding to Rome, to make complaints to 
his holiness against his rebellious flock, who 
refused to follow certain rigid admonitions. His 
countenance was benign and amiable, and his 
manner equally so. We thought we could not 
appropriate the evening more agreeably than by 
going to the opera, and therefore sent to engage a 
box, and went at half-past six. La Dame Blanche 
was performed. It was for the benefit of a blind 
actor, who took a part in the after-piece. 

Friday , December 7. Hotel de L' Europe. Avig- 
non. After inquiring concerning members of our 
religion in this town, we learn that there is no 
assemblage at synagogue on Sabbath, unless par- 
ticularly called for it is merely on particular 
holidays that they meet. A member of our com- 
munity is the master of the Hotel Palais Royal, 
opposite to this, but there is no meat or poultry 
to be had properly killed, except it be expressly 
ordered. Went to see the ancient cathedral, 
built on a rock, where one of the popes, Innocent 
XII., and many of the most renowned men of the 
department of Vaucluse, lie interred. 

The piercing wind prevailing at this time, and 
which usually continues for about three months, 
made us glad to return to the hotel. 


The climate of Avignon is variable and danger- 
ous, a dazzling sun and overpowering heat in 
summer ; and in winter continued gales, are suf- 
ficient to try most constitutions. It is common 
to see chimney-tops and tiles of houses lying 
strewed about every morning, during the high 
wind. The streets are clean, but badly paved, 
and we observed a great number of empty houses. 
Our hostess presented me with a delicious bou- 
quet roses, heliotrope, and jasmine : her man- 
ners exhibited no small share of politeness and 
good temper. Armstrong contrived to have ex- 
cellent soup-maigre for dinner. The fish obtain- 
ed here from Marseilles is extremely fresh, and of 
good quality. The mail performs the journey in 
little more than six hours. 

Saturday, December 8. Hotel de TEurope. 
Avignon. A valet de place escorted us to visit 
some of the curiosities of the town. The first 
object which demanded our attention was the 
ancient palace of the popes, an edifice well cal- 
culated to excite both awe and admiration. It 
traces its origin to the twelfth century, and its 
history is connected with many of the most 
startling events recorded in the annals of the 
middle ages. The eminence on which it stands 
commands a most extensive view of the plains of 
Provence, the mountains of Piedmont, and the 


Mediterranean. Some of the spacious arched 
rooms are now converted into barracks ; and it is 
not without horror that one beholds the hall 
where the Inquisition was held, the prisons 
where the poor martyrs were incarcerated, and 
the spot where their sufferings were ended in 
the burning pile. Several names and dates were 
inscribed on the walls. We were then shown 
some fresco paintings, the colours on the ceilings 
still retain great brightness. Our next visit was 
to the Museum ; in the hall are some immense jars 
found in the vicinity. The collection of anti- 
quities and medals is very interesting, as well as 
the pictures, especially those by Vernet, brothers. 
A startling one is that of a Cossack on horseback 
crossing a wooden bridge over a foaming torrent. 
The bridge gives way ; and the figure of the horse 
is terror itself. There are some convents remain- 
ing in this town, about twelve out of a hundred 
and fifty ; the nuns never go out, but are allowed 
to speak to their friends through the grilles. It 
has been a very cold and windy day, though, 
thanks to Heaven, we have been extremely happy. 
Sunday, December 9. Hotel du Prince. Aix. 
At nine we quitted Avignon with the good 
wishes of our hostess, who expressed hopes that 
we should not forget her on our return : she hand- 
ed us in the carriage a parcel of cakes, and one of 

AIX. 41 

roasted chestnuts for the journey. As we pro- 
ceeded the wind abated, but the cold continued. 
Thermometer forty-eight to fifty-two through- 
out the day. About two leagues off was the 
famous wooden bridge over la Durance, vis-d-vis to 
which is the convent of la Chartreuse, called le 
Bon Pas. Numbers of Cypress-trees planted in 
rows form walls against the sun and wind. Ex- 
tensive plains, diversified by sterile rocks and 
snowy mountains, extend over a vast district, 
varied by the olive and the vine. The road for 
twelve or fourteen miles was in good order ; it 
then became heavy and full of ruts, and for three 
quarters of an hour we had a mountainous pass. 
Innumerable open carts passed us, mostly drawn 
by mules with a donkey for a leader : I do not 
mean a driver ! The view from the summit of the 
ascent is extremely grand and imposing, from its 
extent, and from the various colours of the sur- 
rounding rocks, terraces of vines descending to 
the valley, and the winding road leading to the 
town of Aix. 

We arrived about twenty minutes before five, 
and found spacious and well-furnished apart- 
ments at this hotel. A fountain near a post-house, 
on the way, reminded me very forcibly of our 
having seen, during our last journey on this 
road, an old woman, who moistened her hard, 


black crust of bread at the same stream ! where 
is she, after so long an interval ! 

Monday, December 10. Hotel Beauveau. Mar- 
seilles. As we had but four postes' journey from 
Aix, we walked through the principal streets of 
that town, and looked into two churches, where, 
as at all hours, we found persons at their devo- 
tions. The houses are large, and built of stone, but 
the red tiles on the roofs spoil their appearance. 

The streets are narrow and badly paved, clean- 
liness is disregarded, but the cours and boulevards 
are extremely agreeable. As the morning was 
fine, I was tempted to take the first station out- 
side with dear M . We set off at twelve. 

The road was broad, and the ascents we had to 
pass were protected by a parapet-wall. Many 
labourers were repairing the road, which at present 
is in a bad state, perhaps from a continuance of 
some weeks of rain. The scenery is still ex- 
tensive and diversified, pines ornamenting the 
hills, and olives and vines the valleys. At 
length the Mediterranean appeared. We then 
passed some coal-mines. On descending the 
steep entrance into this town the chain of the 
slipper broke, and took some minutes to arrange, 
during which time the carriage was surrounded 
by numbers of the idle and curious. In our way, 
being anxious for letters, we called at the post- 


office, where we found three. We obtained a com- 
fortable saloon and chamber, with servants' room 
adjoining, opposite the harbour, which is crowded 
with vessels. We are informed that the Turkish 
ambassador is in this house, and will depart 
to-morrow by sea for Constantinople. The 
appearance of the sky this afternoon has none of 
that azure so much the boast of the south of 
France. It wears the sombre covering of an 
English December, though breathing a warmer air. 
I find my boa requisite, and the fire is constantly 
being replenished with large logs of wood, near 
which we are passing the evening, thinking of 
our friends, talking of them, reading and writing. 
Tuesday, December 11. Marseilles. Mr. C 

called this morning to welcome M . At one 

he returned in a carriage with his lady, and we 
accompanied them to the gas-station. We then 
drove back, engaged a box at the Grand Theatre 
for the benefit of M. and Madame Taigny of Paris ; 
great favourites here. A dinner being ordered at 
Solomon's, we went at five, (after attending syna- 
gogue, this being the first day of Hanuka,) and 
found an excellent repast prepared, exceedingly 
clean, and in the best order: at half-past six 
Armstrong brought a carriage, and we repaired 

to Rue de Rome to call for Mr. and Mrs. C , 

who accompanied us to the theatre. The 


house was thronged with well-dressed company, 
and the acting extremely good : four amusing 
vaudevilles w r ere performed, which continued till 
past eleven o'clock. The vociferating noise in 
the pit, during the acts, exceeded anything of 
the kind I had ever before heard. 

Wednesday, December 12. Hotel Beauveau. 
Marseilles. This morning we were greeted with 
several letters from our distant friends. The 
accounts, however, of our suffering relatives are 
far from satisfactory. May we hope that the 
divine mercy will grant them a speedy and perfect 
restoration to health, amen ! Having engaged to 

call for Mrs. C , at eleven I was at her house. 

We drove for an hour up the country, but the 
bad and heavy state of the roads diminished the 
pleasure which the picturesque scenery would 
otherwise have afforded. Went shopping, and 
found articles of millinery expensive here. We 
had some friends, at dinner. Fish, vegetables, 
and fruit are extremely abundant in this country 
and of superior quality, and the bread the best I 
have tasted in France. Wine can be procured by 
the people at a penny a bottle. The population con- 
sists of a hundred and sixty thousand. The trade 
in corn, oil, wine, and soap is very considerable. 

Thursday, December \%th. Marseilles. Mr. 
C calls every morning about ten o'clock, and 


supplies us with Galignani's and other French 
newspapers. The number of vessels discharging 
their cargoes of corn, and various other merchan- 
dise, present an amusing scene opposite our win- 
dows, the extensive harbour being crowded with 
vessels from different countries ; and large steam- 
boats, appointed by government, depart from hence 
every ten days for various ports in Italy, Egypt, 
&c. The quay affords a lively promenade, where 
crowds of people of various countries pass to and 
fro, some smoking, others purchasing at different 
shops and stalls. The Corso is generally embel- 
lished with a good supply of flowers for sale. 
Rows of trees and well-built houses on either 
side of a rising walk, lead to the lazaretto, which 
is a handsome stone building commanding a beau- 
tiful sea view and surrounding rocks : the water 
appears of a deep blue. Were the people more 
observant of cleanliness this would be a delightful 
promenade. At present it is used for a rope-walk, 
and the houses on the right appear dilapidated. 

The Isle of Iff is in view, where Mirabeau was 
imprisoned. We often take a luncheon of coffee 
or chocolate at the cafes, which are never with- 
out company, many of whom are seen at cards or 
dominoes even in the day-time. Mr. S con- 
tinues his dinners in the best manner. We un- 
derstand that religion is greatly neglected here 


and those, who can best afford to support the 
institutions, neglect them. The rabbi and 
reader here, as in other towns, are paid by govern- 
ment. There is a school for boys, and one for 
girls. Hebrew, French, and Latin are taught, 
and efficient masters instruct them in translat- 
ing. We again visited the theatre, it being 
Madame Taigny's benefit. The audience was 

numerous and respectable. Mr. and family 

were of our party, and some of their friends 
were in the adj oining boxes. The entertainments 
continued till twelve o'clock, at which time the 
gas is extinguished. At the moment the light 
was reduced, though not put out, this sudden 
transition to the crowded company, from bril- 
liancy to dulness, called forth a burst of mirth 
and good tempered remarks. 

Friday, December 14. Hotel Beauveau. Mar- 
seilles. There is a constant succession of arrivals 
at this hotel; some by steam-boats, others by land; 
some on their way to Italy, others returning. 

Mr. R and his partner called on us, and 

offered most politely their services. I wrote a letter 

to my dear sister H , then walked to our 

favourite spot to gain a view of the sea, and after- 
wards to the fruit and flower market. There is a 
peculiar sort of fish sold here in great abundance, 
rather larger than anchovies, called les Sardines, 


and also a shell-fish peculiar to this coast. The 
markets afford a plentiful supply of various fish, 
to gratify the taste and aid the observance of 
abstinence from meat on Fridays. A bottle of 
Muscat, a superior quality of which is found 
in this country, was put on our evening table, in 
order to chase away those recollections which the 
illness of our absent friends shaded with sadness ; 
but happily the consoling Sabbath had taught us 
to confide in that Power which alone can cure the 
sick, give balm to the afflicted, and substitute 
satisfaction and felicity for regret. 

Saturday, December 15. Marseilles. After 
attending synagogue, called on Mr. and Mrs. 

C . They accompanied us in a walk up the 

Mount de la Garde de Notre Dame. Here is a 
column supporting a fine bust of Napoleon. At 
the return of the Bourbons this was displaced, but 
is now reinstated. Further is a venerated figure 
of the Virgin. Having passed a row of handsome 
new houses, the sea and adjacent mountains com- 
mand the admiration of the beholder. Advancing 
further, the sight of the extensive city and har- 
bour, crowded with sails, is added to the coup 
d'oeil. How grateful ought the inhabitants of 
those regions to be, in which nature and art have 
so munificently united to minister to their wants 
and pleasures ! but here, as elsewhere, you find 


multitudes dissatisfied, poor, and unhappy. A 
small cottage to let attracted our attention to its 
beautiful locality. A gentleman who possesses 
the adjoining house politely offered to show us it 
from his garden. It is a landscape in miniature ; 
a neat garden planted with vines, olives, and 
flowers, joined to a pretty cottage on a hill, close 
to the sea, within a mile of the city. The road back 
was beautifully planted on either side with choice 
shrubs, bounded by a trim hedge, and embellished 
with grottoes, fountains, and stone seats, and 
walks leading down to the Boulevards. We passed 

an agreeable evening at Mrs.C ? s where a small 

party were invited to meet us. Whist and dcarte. 
Sunday, December 16. Marseilles. Our in- 
quietude respecting our dear brother B 

was in a degree allayed, by a more favour- 
able letter from home; but the one concern- 
ing the health of my dear sister A was 

not so satisfactory. May the Almighty grant 
them a speedy and perfect re-establishment. 
The promenade was to-day crowded. Vegeta- 
bles, fruit, fish, toys, and bonbons were to 
be had in abundance, for the enjoyment of 
the Sunday, when the superiority in dress 
was observable. Walked with Mr. and Mrs. 

C to the Sanatoire to see the bas-relief of 

Puget, and the paintings of the plague which 


infested this city in the seventeenth century one 
of the yellow fever at Barcelona, and another of 
the cholera. We afterwards went to see the 
Hotel de Ville ; the facade, and staircase by 
Puget are extremely handsome. Here we saw 
another large painting descriptive of the plague, 
executed by a pupil of Puget. 

The figures are well pourtrayed, and give an 
awful representation of that dreadful visitation. 
The galley-slaves are sent to bury the bodies, 
when all, except four, fall victims to the scourge. 
The remaining four are questioned as to the man- 
ner of their escape, since all their comrades had 
suffered : they said it was by the use of strong 
vinegar whence that quality of vinegar was ever 
after distinguished as " Vinegar of the four galley 
slaves." A beautiful picture of Hannibal crossing 
the Alps, by Feron, also adorns this room. The 
conqueror has just attained the summit of the 
mountain, and is in the act of pointing out the 
town to his comrades. A wounded soldier raises 
his head to behold the scene, while pain and 
curiosity are blended in his countenance. The 
clouds over the Alps, and the fine azure of an 
Italian sky are skilfully depicted. Our morning 
excursions were terminated by a row up the 
harbour. The boatman amused us by his loqua- 
city, and we learned from him that he had been 


a prisoner during the war, in Portsmouth, and 
had fought in many a battle. He added that war 
was desirable at Marseilles : the population was 
too great ; they would eat each other ! We 
landed on the opposite side of the harbour. Mr. 

and Mrs. C and Mr. P took tea with us 

Monday, December 17. Cujes. Our expecta- 
tion of receiving another letter was fulfilled 
this morning before we quitted Marseilles, 
though its tendency was not of a more favour- 
able nature than any previously received. About 
eleven o'clock we were seated in the carriage, 
and on the road to Toulon. The diversity of the 
scenery compensated for heavy roads ; but as 
the materials for repairing them lie ready on 
either side, it is to be hoped they will soon be 
improved. Crags reaching to the skies, wore a 
different shape at every turn of the road, some 
covered to the summit with thickly planted pine, 
contrasting, by its bright green foliage, with the 
opposing sterile rocks, and the fertile valley, 
neatly and carefully decked with the olive and 
vine, the young wheat springing up in the inter- 
vals between. Who could behold these gifts 
of Providence without reflecting in gratitude on 
the goodness whence they spring ? Huge masses 
of stone for the aid and purposes of art ; oil, 
for light and taste ; wine to gladden the heart ; 


corn, the staff of life ; all concentrated in one 
spot. Frost and ice were to be seen here. At 
Aubagne we were detained an hour and a quarter 
for horses, but we employed the interval in taking 
some refreshment, and looking at a marble monu- 
ment, erected in honour of the Abbe Barthelemy, 
author of Anacharsis' Greece. It is surmounted 
by his bust, and an account of his works and 
merits is inscribed on either side the pedestal 
in Latin and French. He was a native of this 
town. We then proceeded over an improved 
road, and through a magnificent country, to 
Cujes, and were again informed that the horses 
were all out, but some were expected to return 
in the course of an hour : we waited patiently 
some time beyond the stated period. At last the 
sound of the whip announced their arrival : the 
poor animals had now to be refreshed. Another 
hour had elapsed, and finding darkness approach- 
ing, we judged it more prudent to pass the night 
in this small town, particularly as the mistress 
of the hotel had repeatedly invited us to walk 
up stairs and warm ourselves. We found the 
accommodation surpass our expectation. The 
bread is excellent here, and this with good butter, 
coffee, and eggs, by the side of a lively wood fire, 
composed an agreeable meal. 

Tuesday, December 18. Toulon. Hotel la 
E 2 


Croix d'Or. A little before six this morning, a 
tap at the door warned us that it was time to 
rise ; at half-past six the horses were ordered, 
and we hastened to be in readiness. Again we 
were detained by the mismanagement of the 
postillions or master, whilst the animals were 
being rough-shod, a work not so speedily effected 
here. In the meantime we heard a carriage arrive; 
it was a caravan taking prisoners to Toulon. 
Poor unfortunates ! not a very enviable journey 
for them. A little before eight we were again 
en route, with an extra pair of horses, having an 
ascent of three quarters of an hour. The sub- 
limity of the prospects increased at every turn, 
and we could not forbear reflecting on the 
long interval that had elapsed since our former 
visit to this lovely country, nor suppress our 
thanks for being again permitted to travel 
through it in health and enjoyment. Having 
attained the summit, the two extra horses were 
unharnessed, and we again proceeded with four : 
an excellent road brought us to the descent. The 
craggy rocks now seemed to tower above the 
skies, and awfully to refuse the appearance of 
an outlet, which is only discovered on the turn 
of the road, pierced through the side of the 
stupendous mountain, dissevered from the oppo- 
site side by a torrent. 


Though I could not behold these astonishing 
works of nature without amazement, yet the 
more softening views of the cultivated valleys, 
and terraces of vines and olives, with the enliven- 
ing pine covering the hills, were more welcome 

Nothing could exceed the beauty of the sun's 
reflection on the waters of the Mediterranean, 
which broke suddenly on the view between the 
mountains in the distance, while the towering 
masts of the shipping increased the grandeur, and 
added new life and interest to the scene. After 
a delightful journey of twenty miles, we reached 
this town; and the clean and well-furnished 
hotel, in a lively situation, pleased us as much as 
the breakfast proved salutary, after the stimu- 
lants of air and exercise. 

We devoted this day to letter-writing, and 
find ourselves so comfortable as to be wavering 
whether to proceed to-morrow on our way to 
Nice, or remain here for a few days. 

Wednesday y December 19. Toulon. Hotel la 
Croix d'Or. This comfortable residence, town, 
and sea-air have tempted us to continue till 
Sunday. Having asked permission of the soldier, 
stationed at the entrance of the dock-yard, to 

enter, M sent his card to the officer, when a 

corporal was desired to show the kitchen, the 


forge, and take us to view the hospital-ship. On 
our return, the officer politely inquired if we 
would like to see his garden, to which he escorted 
us. It is a walled retreat, covered with vine and 
fig-trees, affording a shelter from the summer's 
scorching sun. 

The officer took great pains to search for vio- 
lets, wishing to add some to the ranunculuses 
which he had previously gathered, but all had 
disappeared, as he said, in this morbid season. He 
then asked me if I should fear an excursion on 
the water. The fineness of the day insured a 
negative to the question, and immediately a large 
boat rowed by eight men approached us. The 
clearness of the water in the inner harbour made 
us consent to proceed to the outer one, and while 
gliding along this magnificent basin, the history 
of the surrounding heights, fortresses, naval 
schools, and ships were explained to us by one 
of our gallant companions. 

First, the fortress built by Louis XIV., now 
used as an hospital ; then the sterile mountains of 
the islands of Hyeres, old castles, batteries, mag- 
nificent arsenals, &c. The Montebello now be- 
came the grand object of attention. A bell having 
sounded, two midshipmen appeared on the steps. 
I was handed up, and introduced to the officers 
of this superb man-of-war. Nothing could ex- 


ceed its neatness. The decks were as white as 
snow, the brass works as bright as gold, and the 
officers' apartments were furnished with hand- 
some carpets, looking-glasses, and highly polished 
mahogany, with crimson silk. Decks of immense 
sjace, and one hundred and fifty-guns, are found 
in this colossal vessel ; whose full complement 
oi men is one thousand. There were now about 
tvo hundred on board. 

After seeing the kitchen, the dining room, and 
tie various equipments of the ship, we took our 
leive, highly gratified at having been permitted 
t( visit, with amicable sentiments, an object so 
inportant in time of war, but now of admiration 
cnly, and never of terror to our brave country- 
men. When experiencing the courtesy, the 
suavity of manners of strangers in a foreign clime, 
and who have been our rivals for years, one can- 
not but hope most ardently, that ambition may 
never again overpower humanity, or interrupt 
that delightful intercourse with different nations, 
and mankind in general, so favourable to the 
best interests of the world. We returned to the 
boat, escorted by the officer, Monsieur A. A. 

F , highly delighted with his politeness, and 

our morning's amusement. 

The ship that took Buonaparte to Egypt was 

lying in the harbour : Monsieur F said it 

was as a monument. 


Thursday, December 20. Toulon. Wrote let- 
ters to some of our friends, as the post for 
England leaves at two o'clock. We then wert 
to see the arsenal, one of the finest in Europe. 
A written permission must be obtained to viiit 
this splendid establishment. The stone buildings 
are magnificent, its arches and columns being on 
a gigantic scale. 

The rope- walk extends twelve hundred feetfn 
length, and is supported by arches. We saw tiie 
various processes of the rope-manufacture, fron 
the combing of the hemp to the forming of tie 
thick cord. One side of this immense apartmeit 
was covered with enormous iron cables. Tie 
number of cannon, from eighty to thirty, down to 
twelve pounders was incalculable : several nev 
ships, of one hundred guns each, are being con- 
structed, with perpendicular sides instead of 
round. There was only one of one hundred and 
twenty guns, besides the Montebello. The 
armoury was embellished by several figures in 
ancient coats of mail. The model-room contains 
handsome models of remarkable vessels, both 
ancient and modern, of all nations. Bands of 
galley-slaves are here employed, and appeared as 
comfortably stationed as men in their unfortunate 
situation could hope for. Some were sitting 
unemployed, others chained two and two, were 


pointed out to us as greater criminals than such 
as were alone. The green cap marks the con- 
demned for life. After the hour of labour they 
are allowed to employ their time to their own 
advantage. We made some trifling purchases of 
them of carved wood and netted twine. One of 
them spoke English very well, and said he was 
condemned for seven years for dealing in slaves. 
At half-past four the work-people left by the gate 
at which we had entered, the only one to the 

We returned our admission-ticket to the sen- 
tinel. A file of soldiers was drawn up in the 
outer court-yard, to keep order as the people left, 
no one being suffered to remain within the gate, 
except the prisoners and soldiers to guard them. 
The arsenal is said to be more extensive than the 
town of Toulon ; but the population is increasing, 
and several new houses are being constructed, 
especially in the faubourg. Our valet de place, 
to-day, was a brevet major, who had lost his right 
arm in the battle of Navarino. His countenance 
was open and agreeable, and we found him very 
communicative. Returning along the fine broad 
quay, we met our polite friend, the officer who 
yesterday escorted us. The fish-market is re- 
markable. It is covered, and supported by ten 
stupendous pillars, and was surrounded by fruit 


and green stalls. The chattering of the women 
and noise of the purchasers made it seem a 
second Babel. 

Friday, December 21. Toulon. Hotel la Croix 
d'Or. A cold windy morning prevented our ful- 
filling our intention of breakfasting at Hyeres, a 
pretty, small town, two leagues distant, famous 
for orange, lemon, citron, and pomegranate trees. 
The salt-rocks also are beautiful, with the sun's 

The number of diligences in the square affords 
constant amusement ; but when my dear M 
is well and happy, and I hear of the welfare of 
my friends, I want little else to make me perfectly 
so. At one o'clock, our usual hour for walking, 
we went to the quay, and took a boat to examine 
the inscription on the Muiron, the frigate which 
brought Buonaparte from Egypt ; it is as fol- 
lows : 








Pyramids. An Eagle with Lightning. An Oak 

& Palm-trees. Emblematical Figures. with Serpents. 


Saturday Evening, December 22. Toulon. 
A fine, but rather cold, day : it is fortunate to 
have some cold weather and wind to chase away 
the disagreeable odours, and destroy the insects 
prevalent in warm climates. The stream of 
water running on each side the streets is also a 
great acquisition. Several handsome fountains 
playing in the squares are not only a luxury, but 
a means of safety, where epidemic diseases have 
scoured the country of half its inhabitants. 
About two years since the cholera raged here to 
a dreadful extent. Near five thousand inhabit- 
ants perished in a few weeks. May the Almighty 
guard us from such a visitation ! 

We this morning walked to see the works 

erected for gas-lighting by Mr. D . They 

are situated outside the gates, near the mountains, 
on an agreeable spot for the manager. This 
town is very quiet at an early hour in the 
evening. The bugle sounds soon after six, for 
the soldiers to retire to their barracks. The 
theatre is spoken of in terms that do not excite 
a wish to visit it. We devoted the evening to 

write to Mrs. M and Mr. D . The 

balcony of the Hotel de Ville is supported by two 
marble grotesque figures by Puget, said to be 
portraits of two official personages who had 
affronted him, and recognised by everybody. 


Sunday, December 23. Frejus. Left Toulon at 
half -past seven, after a sojourn of five days of 
content and happiness. We passed the ramparts 
and strong fortifications, and entered on a fine 
level road, through a beautiful plain, planted 
with the olive and vine, bounded by moun- 
tains, mostly sterile, but here and there covered 
with cultivated terraces. An old sombre castle, 
or fortress, crowns some of their summits, or 
marks their centre as the scene of actions worthy 
of historic recollection, and stamped with the 
celebrity of Buonaparte, Louis XI V., or some more 
ancient hero. The morning was cold and gloomy ; 
and as our host had predicted, it commenced rain- 
ing as we left Le Luc, where we breakfasted. 
After travelling three and three quarters postes, 
we were rather disappointed in the appearance 
of this town, and the accommodations at the inn ; 
but they did their possible, and we could but be 
satisfied. The road continued in the best order, 
winding through extensive plains, richly cul- 
tivated, and more abounding in pasture than at 
the commencement of the day's journey. 

The scene was enlivened by several flocks of 
sheep and their shepherds, and profusions of 
emerald-pine covering the heights. Vidauban 
and May are dirty old towns, though well watered 
by streams and fountains. The populace were 


thickly assembled in the market-places, where 
stalls of vegetables, fruit, &c., were on show. 
Approaching this town, we were struck with the 
appearance of some fine ruins, vestiges of Roman 
architecture. It was near this place that Buona- 
parte landed, in 1799, on his return from Egypt ; 
and it was from Frejus that he embarked on 
going to Elba, after his abdication. We arrived 
at half -past five o'clock. 

Monday, December 24. Frejus to Nice. Ten 
Posies. Left Frejus at ten minutes past seven, 
after taking some very nice coffee. The bill for 
the night at the Hotel de la Poste was very mo- 
derate. We again passed some imposing ruins of 
a Roman aqueduct and amphitheatre. The 
ascent over a steep and rocky mountain soon 
commenced, and as the road wound round the 
tremendous height, our fears were somewhat in- 
creased by the violence of the snow and wind, 
which continued nearly the whole of this station. 
A good-tempered, chatty postillion, who had for 
forty years followed his present avocation, and 
had the honour of conducting Buonaparte on his 
return from Elba, informed us that, either by 
accident or design, the beautiful plantations 
of pine, cork-trees, and olives, which cover the 
mountains, were set on fire, and burnt to the ex- 
tent of nine or ten miles. In many parts the 


effect is now visible. Only black trunks are re- 
maining in the direction which the wind took, 
making the uninjured wood more beautiful by 
the contrast. Arriving at the summit, the Medi- 
terranean appeared again in view, between the 
distant mountains ; and glad was I to escape from 
the rather piercing wind, to the more sheltered 
plain. As we proceeded, divers shrubs and trees 
excited the wish that a scientific botanist were 
present to explain their various properties ; nor 
was the geologist forgotten, as we contemplated 
the majestic rocks, their various colours, and gro- 
tesque forms. We stopped to change horses at 
Esterel, at five minutes past ten, so that we were 
nearly three hours going two postes, or ten miles. 
The road afterwards continued nearly level, and 
in the finest order, to the end of the day's journey. 
Cannes, a beautifully situated town on the sea- 
shore, is fast improving. Blocks of stone are 
being collected round the harbour for a new port, 
and several spacious hotels are nearly finished. 
We passed the mansion of Lord Brougham, and 
that of Sir Herbert Taylor, near to each other, on 
the sea-shore, surrounded by groves of orange, 
olive, &c., interspersed with vine. It being now 
half-past twelve, we thought it time for break- 
fast, and repaired to a cafe' for the purpose. 
Here a gentlemen was seated, who spoke English, 

NICE. 63 

and on M 's asking if there was any butter in 

the place, he replied, " Not here, but there is one 
battery in the island, close by!" We crossed, 
near Antibes, a small, elegant suspension- bridge, 
then a long wooden bridge over the Var, in the 
centre of which stood a sentinel and post-mark, 
the commencement of the Piedmontese territory. 

They detained us some little time at the 
Douanes, without giving us any trouble. The 
foaming billows rushed towards the rocky and 
pebbled shore all the afternoon, and we congra- 
tulated ourselves that we were on dry land. 
The twilight of approaching evening impeded, in 
a degree, the sight of the neighbouring beauties 
of Nice. But the moon favoured us, and we 
caught glimpses of some handsome houses and 
delicious orangeries. Three letters awaited our 
arrival ; that from home was far from cheering, 
respecting our dear invalids. 

Tuesday, December 25. Hotel des Etrangers, 
Nice. Christmas is kept in this town with great 
solemnity, and a strict observance of the services 
of the church. All business is suspended, the 
shops are closed, except those of druggists and 
confectioners, and the day had all the quiet of 
an English Sunday, unless when the repose was 
occasionally broken by bands of music. About 
ten this morning, we were attracted to the win- 


dow by a procession of veiled females, followed 
by priests, each carrying a lighted wax- taper, 
then a statue borne by four priests, followed by 
four others bearing a coffin, attended by a num- 
ber of other females in black veils and dresses, 
all chanting the funeral dirge. The wife of the 
Prefet was about to be interred. Peace to her 
manes ! In our morning's walk we entered the 
cathedral, but the intense heat from the great 
assemblage of persons and number of lighted 
candles, obliged us to quit instantly, though the 
music and service would have induced us to re- 
main. The hills and rocks near the sea are very 
imposing. Terraces, covering the houses of the 
lower town, afford delightful promenades. The 
Corso, bordered with rows of trees, offers another 
beautiful walk. Among the monuments erected 
in honour of a visit of the king and queen, was 
one with Hebrew characters on one side of the 
pedestal, which supported an obelisk, with a 
sphinx in each corner, all of white marble, en- 
closed within an iron railing. It was erected by 
the Israelites of this town. My dear husband 
was particularly gratified with this object. 

Wednesday, December 26. Nice. This day 
is also observed as a fete, the shops being shut 
and the people abstaining from work. A military 
band is playing on the Corso, where they as- 

NICE. 65 

semble, and afterwards go to church. We walked 
by the sea-side, and in our way passed a number 
of country-houses, fantastically painted, and re- 
minding one of a scene in a play. The gardens, 
embellished with orange and lemon-trees, loaded 
with fruit, and the delicate acacia, covered with 
flowers, are beautifully ornamental. Some of 
the walks are bordered with aloes. 

M - went in the course of the morning to 

present his letters to Mr. A , the Prussian 

consul. He was received by that gentleman with 
marked courtesy and kindness, and, throughout 

our stay in this place, both he and Madame A , 

an amiable and accomplished lady, continued to 
render us the most obliging attentions. In the 
course of conversation we learnt that this country 
is greatly wanting in liberality, and that the 
members of our community are subject to much 
oppression, and many disadvantages. How long 
will the powerful oppress the weak, and endea- 
vour to stifle the energies of their fellow beings ? 
One consolation remains under such a state of 
things. Conscientious feelings, well maintained 
under oppression, ever excite the sympathy and 
admiration of independent and virtuous minds. 

We went at half-past seven to the opera. 
The tragedy of Gemma di Vergy, a new piece, 
was performed. The house is pretty ; the 


acting not of the first rate, but very tolerable. 
There was a crowded audience, and extremely 

Thursday, December 27. Nice. I wrote a 

letter to my sister A . At one o'clock Mr. 

A paid us a visit, and requested us to 

accompany him in his carriage to see his 
country-residence. Our own carriage was already 
at the door, but we could not refuse his attention. 

The drive continued for a mile by the sea-side, 
and having reached the villa, we found the sur- 
rounding gardens ornamented with orange, lemon, 
and fig-trees, luxuriantly covered with fruit and 
foliage, while the acacia, rose, wild strawberry, 
palm and myrtle, diffused around them grace and 
fragrance. Walks, adapted to summer heat or 
winter cold, are selected for their aspect. A cool 
grotto and pavilion add to the agreeable retreat 
in this little paradise. The house was neatly fur- 
nished, muslin bed and window-curtains adapted 
to the climate. The ceilings painted iu the 
Italian style. 

Mr. A. politely said, that he wished we had 
taken up our residence here ; that we should find 
all we required in it, except wearing apparel, and, 
that he hoped on our return we would desire the 
postillions to stop at this abode. On our way 
back we wished to see the column erected by the 

NICE. 67 

Jewish community, that we might give an order 
to a person to copy it. 

To-day the shops are open, and the town ap- 
pears gay. The older streets are narrow and 
badly paved, and the population dense. In the 
new, handsome buildings are fast increasing. 

Friday, December 28. Nice. Hotel des 
Et rangers. We regretted not being aware that 
there were three hotels, the H6tel du Midi, 
Hdtel de France, and Hotel de Londres, com- 
manding a view of the Corso and sea, while our 
apartments in this hotel are cold and dull, and 

look only into the street. M had just gone to 

call on Mr. A , when that gentleman paid us 

a visit, and sat a long time chatting. He is a very 
agreeable person, and appears to possess great 

knowledge of the world. Madame A and 

her eldest son also paid us a visit : she is a native 
of Bourdeaux, and has evidently a great pre- 
dilection for her own country, though she is keep- 
ing up a round of gaiety here, having her weekly 
soirees, and her box at the opera ; but I am not 
astonished ; there is something so endearing and 
sweet in one's native land, especially where 
equal rights prevail, and prejudice does not disse- 
minate her baneful influence. I wrote to my dear 
Sister H , but did not send the letter to- 
day. M went to synagogue. Mr. A 

F 2 


was there, and a very respectable number of 
attendants. We amused ourselves with reading 
" Corinne" in the evening, and Galignani, which 
contains all the news from England for the six 
preceding days. 

Saturday evening, December 29. Nice. At 

eight this morning I accompanied M to the 

synagogue, which we found an extremely pretty 
building, and very neatly fitted up ; the prayers 
were repeated in a most distinct manner, and 
with much devotion. A person wearing the 
Turkish Costume was called up. Mr. A in- 
formed us that he was from Barbary, and an ex- 
ceedingly learned and clever man, his writings 
excelling, in his opinion, those of Shakspeare and 

Only two females were present, it not being the 
custom here for ladies to attend, except on holi- 
days. One addressed me in Italian, and wished 
to give me every information. She said there 
were about six families in the community who 
could not maintain themselves, but there were 
only three or four rich families among the 
seventy or eighty. 

Mrs. B , formerly Miss S , of London, 

daughter of the late doctor, called on me : 
she has been resident in this town about twelve 
years, but does not appear to like the inhabitants. 

NICE. 69 

She informed me, that the column in honour of 
the late king's visit to this town was erected by 
our nation, every other body having displayed 
some like testimony of loyalty. The Haham also 
paid us a visit : he seems deeply concerned at the 
oppression to which our community is subject ; 
and thinks of leaving the place. 

He appears a gentlemanly, well-instructed per- 
son, and they speak of his son as an accomplished 
teacher of Latin and Italian. We returned Ma- 
dame A 's call, after which Monsieur accom- 
panied us in a pleasant walk. 

Sunday, December 30. Nice. Took a de- 
lightful walk to the cemetery, the road to which 
is a broad path up a steep mountain, planted on 
each side with cypress, and various other trees 
and shrubs. The aloes grow in great profusion 
and luxury. 

On the summit of the hill, many a leaf is dis- 
tinguished by the name of some fair favourite 
being marked on it. I gathered some plant like 
the heliotrope in flower and fragrance. The daisy 
and butter-cup are already in bloom, as well as 
numberless heaths. As we were descending, we 
met families, nicely dressed, walking up, with all 
the enjoyment of a day of rest in their counte- 
nances ; indeed, I never beheld a place where 
the sabbath appeared to be kept more properly 


the shops closed, and the people in the peaceful 
enjoyment of exercise and air, and neatly dressed. 
We again engaged a box at the opera. The same 
piece was performed as before, Gemma di Vergy. 

Mr. A remained some time with us : his 

lady was opposite in her own box. M went 

to pay his respects. 

Monday, December 31. Nice to St. Hemo. 
Ten and a half Posies. A delightful morning : 
took leave of Nice at half -past ten o'clock. Mr. 

A was in waiting as we passed his house to 

bid us farewell. I took my last look of the de- 
lightful promenade with admiration, though not 
with regret, never considering beauty of country 
a compensation for the want of liberality in its 
government. Freedom of mind, and expansive 
views of duty, these only can teach us to appre- 
ciate properly, or enjoy consistently the blessings 
of the Almighty. 

We soon commenced ascending a steep and 
rocky mountain, which was to continue for two 
hours. I pitied the poor horses, which have to 
complete a stage of six postes, or thirty miles, 
and asked the postillion why they had not a poste 
establishment on the summit of St. Aubert ? " Oh! 
Us sont trop miserables ! " but all these rich olive- 
trees, and terraces of vines, and orange-trees ! 
" Ah," said he, with a shrug, "Us sontpauvres gens! 


The views became grander, and more sublime 
as we advanced. Never did I behold more ma- 
jestic scenery. The sea breaks suddenly on the 
view between the rent of an immense mountain, 
covered on each side with trees and vineyards, 
and the beholder remains lost in wonder at the 
mingled works of nature and art. Marvellous is 
it that the industry and science of man, great as 
they are, could accomplish the design of piercing 
a road through the side of a steep rock, wind- 
ing up to its summit, the precipices often de- 
scending in a perpendicular line down to the sea. 
At every turn I trembled to think what would 
become of us should the horses take a false step. 
Wherever a spot on the mountain is capable of 
cultivation, it is carefully supported by stone 
walls disposed in rows one above the other, to 
support the earth and its produce. But the 
labour is sometimes destroyed by torrents of 
rain, and vineyards, walls, trees, and flocks are 
borne away by the mountain-cataracts and 
storms. Provident nature presents abundance of 
materials for repairs of roads ; and quarries of 
stone and forests of trees are seen in quick succes- 
sion. Glad to arrive in safety at Mentone, the 
postillions good-temperedly brought us, after 
their thirty miles' stage, some oranges of the 
country, which were the sweetest we had tasted. 


The passport was frequently demanded to- 
day, and three times the formality of search in 
these dominions was required. The same moun- 
tainous country and sublime scenery continued 
during the remainder of the day's journey, with 
a sea-view throughout. From Ventimiglia to 
this place the mountains were less precipitous, 
but the road much neglected. In some parts we 
had to ford torrents, which greatly needed 
bridges : we saw one handsome suspension- 
bridge to-day. For the last fifteen miles we 
were lighted by the moon, its clear beams re- 
flecting on the sea, like diamonds and sheets of 
pure silver rolling towards the shore. The 
brightest planets were sparkling around, and we 
might truly exclaim, the sun gave light by day, 
and the moon and stars by night : both shone 
with a lustre I had never before beheld. We 
thank the Almighty, who has allowed us to con- 
template this glorious and resplendent scene, and 
brought us hither in safety. Santo Remo is a 
large old town, the streets steep and narrow, with 
lofty houses on either side. Its trade is prin- 
cipally in oil, oranges, and lemons ; the trees bear- 
ing which so richly and gracefully ornament the 
vicinity. We found accommodation at the Hotel 
de la Poste. A room large enough for a dozen per- 
sons was assigned to us. I was glad to find that 


Ann's chamber was adjoining, and Armstrong's 
not far off. 

January 1, 1839, from San Remo to Finale. 
Another year has passed ! Oh ! may the forth- 
coming be attended with the blessings we have 
hitherto experienced, and may the Almighty 
continue to protect us from whatever is harmful 
or unholy ! May our time be employed in such a 
manner as to merit thy protection, O Lord, and in 
the pursuit of what may lead to our own true im- 
provement and the benefit of our fellow-creatures ! 
Another difficult day's journey mountains, pre- 
cipices, and rugged roads ! We had to ford 
several torrents, which in spring I should suppose 
impassable. A new road is almost finished, on a 
level with the sea. It is now in a state for foot- 
passengers, but not yet for carriages. This will 
be a great advantage to travellers. In order to 
avoid the precipitous turnings in the mountain, 
unprotected by a parapet, but presenting a preci- 
pice shelving down to the sea many hundred feet 
deep, and a narrow and rocky road, with terrific 
rocks on the other side, we walked for about an 
hour and a half, regardless of the wounds my feet 
encountered from the sharp bulging flints. The 
wind was also fierce and powerful, and we were 
forcibly reminded of David's psalm, "I lift up mine 
eyes unto the hills whence cometh my help. My 


help is from the Lord, who made heaven and earth. 
He will not suffer thy foot to slip, neither will thy 
keeper slumber." How forcibly was the truth 
presented to us! It is in viewing the wonders of 
nature that we can best admire that Omnipotent 
power, who alone guides us in the proper path. 
We found some oranges very refreshing in the 
carriage. Numbers of priests and students were 
enjoying the fesfa, promenading in the environs 
of the different towns through which we passed. 
There were also groups of nicely-dressed females, 
whose costume, a white thin scarf, descending 
over the head to the waist, was very becoming. 
Marble begins to display itself in the ornaments 
round the doors of houses, &c. and though the 
streets of most of the towns we passed through 
were extremely narrow, still the shops of some 
seemed well supplied, and the people were re- 
spectably attired. How lovely again the moon 
appeared rising from the sea, while the stars dif- 
fused a more than usual brilliancy they seemed 
to console us for the fatigue and dread we had 
suffered in walking up and down this difficult and 
rugged mountain ! Arrived at forty-five minutes 
past six, and set off from San Remo at seven 

o'clock. M calls me a little Napoleon ! What 

an honour ! and yet I would not be so ambitious. 
Wednesday, January 2. Finale to Genoa 


Left at eight. The weather still propitious. On 
leaving this town we passed through a gallery 
pierced in the rock. The road much improved 
along the seashore ; the ascents being protected 
by parapets, while plantations of pine intermixed 
with myrtles, olives, and a variety of shrubs, 
covered the hills up to the summit, the boundary- 
line to which is a chain of snowy Alps. When- 
ever the road became too steep for our nerves, 
we took advantage of the bright and clear 
atmosphere, and found the exercise of walking 
extremely beneficial. The majestic aloes, border- 
ing the brows of mountains, and the different 
species of weeping plants and heath, ornamenting 
the banks, often created the wish to transfer some 
to our friends at home. Again we had to ford 
several torrents : the women washing in the 
streams and rivulets, with divers-coloured hand- 
kerchiefs loosely tied under the chin, had a most 
picturesque appearance. As we passed through 
forests of olive-trees, the women and children 
collecting the fallen fruit in baskets, was an 
equally pleasing sight. In several of the towns 
the men were engaged in the manufacture of 
white pottery ; while women and children, sitting 
on the shore, or outside their doors, were making 
fishermen's nets, or turning the wheel for twine. 
At Voltri ship and boat-building form the chief 


employment. We passed under three galleries 
pierced through the rock, during this day's 
journey, and the scenery was the most picturesque 
and beautiful I recollect ever to have seen, while 
it was happily unattended with any dread, the 
roads being wider and better protected by walls. 
As we wound round the mountains, the prospect 
of the different bays and several towns, at the 
foot of the Apennines, 

" With the blue above and the blue beneath," 
formed an ever-diversified and moving panorama. 
Genoa, with its superb palaces was long in sight. 
In its immediate environs, orange-groves and 
alcoves of vine, gracefully supported by marble 
columns, ornamented the terraces and gardens of 
the country-houses. 

On entering the town we found signs of the 
busy spirit of improvement. This was chiefly 
evident in the enlargement of one of the principal 
streets, the alteration of which can only be effected 
at very considerable expense. The Prince of 
Oldenburgh and family, who left Nice the evening 
before we started, were just about to embark for 
Leghorn in the steam-boat, which leaves at six 
this evening, and is expected to arrive at six 
o'clock to-morrow morning. They have four 
carriages, and were detained on the road for 
horses yesterday. At half-past four we were set 

GENOA. 77 

down at the Hdtel de Quatre Nations, and had the 
pleasure of meeting with superb apartments, 
with a view of the port, light-house, and shipping. 
Armstrong immediately went to the post to 

inquire for letters. There was one from H , 

imparting a more favourable account of the 

health of our dear brother B , who was 

improving, though slowly. 

Thursday, January 3. Genoa. Hdtel de Quatre 
Nations. We are delighted with our rooms ; they 
command a fine view of the most characteristic 
features of the city, are lofty, and exhibit along 
the surface of the domed ceilings, a series of well- 
painted mythological fables. A massive gilt cor- 
nice, and walls en-suite. A chamber furnished 
with yellow satin damask, the saloon with light 
blue, and a marble balcony admitting us to the 
free enjoyment of the air and enlivening pros- 
pect, are some of the many luxuries which these 
elegant apartments afford. The only inconve- 
niences are those of descending seventy-eight 
stone stairs every time we go out, and so direct 
an exposure to the powerful rays of the sun, 
that we are compelled, while writing, to have 
the curtains drawn. Prince and Princess Old- 
enburgh, who left this hotel yesterday evening in 
a steam-boat for Leghorn, returned this morning 
at two o'clock, and have again set off by land. It 


was stormy, and something is stated to have hap- 
pened to the boiler, no very pleasant circum- 
stance with a retinue of four carriages. 

We dined at a restaurateur's of our own com- 
munity ; but though everything was clean and 
good, the distance, and a long covered narrow 
street, consisting of blacksmiths' shops, through 
which we had to pass, made us prefer having 
our dinners at the hotel. 

In the evening we went to the principal thea- 
tre, Carlo Felici, a handsome building, with a 
richly ornamented fa9ade of white marble 
columns, and five tiers of boxes. A new lyric 
tragedy, called Don Gazzia, was performed. The 
prima donna had a fine powerful voice and com- 
manding person, and the stage and decorations 
were on a grand scale. Two ballets were also 
presented, one of which was Elisabetto al Castello 
dl Kenelworth. The house was not thronged. 
Some of the ladies went in sedan-chairs, attended 
by two footmen in livery, besides the chair-men ; 
but the carriages were not very numerous. In 
one of the upper boxes some gentlemen were 
seated at a card-table, engaged apparently at 
whist. They had wax lights, and seemed as 
much at their ease as in their own drawing-rooms. 
Conversation and animated gestures were general, 
and we were led to conclude that warm climates 

GENOA. 79 

must have a great effect on the mind, silence or 
inaction being of such rare occurrence. The 
mezsaro, a long piece of muslin worn over the 
heads of the Genoese ladies, is extremely be- 
coming. The more ordinary class wear printed 
cotton of large pattern; in other respects the 
wealthier are not distinguished by any particular 
costume, but wear what fancy dictates, as in 
other countries. Fish, fruit, and vegetables are 
very plentiful here. The John-dory, here called 
St. Pierre, is plentiful and much esteemed. 

Friday, January 4. Genoa. Went to the Pa- 
lazzo Doria. We could only see the garden to- 
day, but were promised a view of the palace on 
Sunday. The family reside in Rome. It is to be 
regretted that so magnificent a residence should 
be uninhabited. The situation is charming, being 
opposite the bay, and though the garden is too 
precise to please, the marble terraces and fresco 
paintings richly compensate for the want of more 
uatural beauty. On going away the gardener 
presented me with a bouquet, choice and fragrant. 
On our return we looked in at the church of the 
Annunciata, rich in white and red marble columns. 
Mass was being performed, and several persons 
were at their devotions. The master of our hotel 
showed us several other suites of apartments, some 
with rich damask tapestry, others with ancient 


Chinese paintings on satin, formerly belonging to 
the doge. We preferred our own, as being more 
lively and airy. 

Saturday, 5th January, 1839. Genoa. It re- 
quired some resolution to be ready this morning 

to accompany M to synagogue, it being on 

the other side of the Mole, and he always desirous 
of arriving at the commencement of the service, 
which we had the satisfaction of doing. There 
were only four ladies present besides myself, but 
the assemblage of gentlemen was respectable, 

both as to number and appearance. Mr. M , 

consul and charge' d'affaires for Morocco, is one 

of the principal members ; also a Mr. A : 

they both called at our hotel, but we were out. 
We returned by way of the Mole, which is a work 
between two walls, supported by arches, with 
streets beneath. It extends round the har- 
bour, and commands a busy scene and salu- 
brious air. We were amused with watching 
the unlading of the corn and other goods, the 
number of persons employed, and the general in- 
dustry of the people. Many of them work ex- 
tremely hard, carrying immense weights on the 
head or back. From their loud mode of talking 
one imagines them to be quarrelling. We went in 
the evening to the theatre St. Augustin, which 
was very well attended, and is a good-sized house 

GENOA. 81 

but the entrance is bad, and it is not nicely kept 
Most of the boxes and pit were full. The Italians 
are as fond of theatres as their neighbours, the 
French. The population of Genoa comprises 
about one hundred thousand, in which only sixty 
or seventy families belong to our community. 

Sunday, Qth January. Genoa. We engaged a 
m let-de-place, and visited some of the principal 
palaces. The. city abounds in the riches of 
architecture, painting, and sculpture ; and as 
admission into the noblest mansions is readily 
allowed, it would be unpardonable for a stranger 
not to visit them, though the number of stone 
stairs (seventy-eight) made it rather fatiguing 
to ascend. Palais Brignole, Rue Neuve, is one 
of the most superb for its marble staircase and 
columns, and possesses one of the choicest collec- 
tions of pictures in Genoa. A beautiful full- 
length painting, by Vandyke, of La Marquise de 
Brignole ; the marquis, by the same artist, in 
Spanish costume, and Judith, with the head of 
Holofernes, by Paul Veronese, are remarkably 
fine works. The four rooms representing the 
seasons, and several other apartments are filled 
with rare paintings, busts, and other magnificent 
curiosities. We next visited Palais Serra ; the 
decorations of the principal salle are the most 
magnificent I ever beheld. The walls are de- 



corated to imitate lapis lazuli ; gold and marble 
columns support a beautifully painted octagon 
ceiling, while immense looking-glasses, alter- 
nating with the pillars, four bas reliefs over the 
doors and a mosaic pavement of the finest marbles, 
complete the ornaments of this splendid saloon, 
assuredly one of the most beautiful in Italy, and 
costing a fortune in its construction. We next 
proceeded to the Palais Ditrazzo, Hue Balbi ; the 
marble columns, statues, beautiful staircase, and 
fresco walls of which strike the visitor with 
wonder. The several rooms are filled with paint- 
ings by the old masters of highest fame. Our 
next and last visit for the day was to Palais du 
Prince d'Oria Panfili. As it was situated beyond 
the gate of St. Thomas we had sufficient exercise 
to-day, but our gratification in witnessing so 
many astonishing works of art overcame every 
feeling of fatigue. There we saw the armour, 
chair, and sword of Charles V. of Spain, and had 
the honour of holding the formidable weapon in 
our hands. The trophies were presented by the 
Pope to Andrea d'Oria, the restorer of liberty to 
his country. No finer view of the gulf, the city, 
and surrounding Alps, can be obtained than from 
the window of this palace. The marble terraces 
and fountains in the garden are refreshed by the 
sea-breezes, and derive a romantic beauty from 

GENOA. 83 

the delicious shades of cypress and orange-trees. 
This residence has been honoured by the sojourn 
of Buonaparte and 'other royal personages. The 
prince's secretary was extremely polite, showing 
us all the objects rendered interesting by history, 
the fine arts, talent, and past ages. 

Numbers of well-dressed persons throng the 
streets in the afternoon, and on account of the 
festa this day the city was particularly gay. Large 
cakes and confectionery of great variety were on 
sale. The clergy and military form a great por- 
tion of the population. We again attended the 
performance of Don Gazzia at the opera, where 
we obtained a box on the first tier, an excellent 
situation, for twenty-five francs besides entrance. 
Sunday is the best night. 

Monday, January 7. I made some purchases 
of silver flowers, a velvet dress, &c., and the valet- 
de-place procured an order for our again visiting 
the Conservatoire de Fraschini, founded in 1790, by 
Dominico Freschi, a Genoese nobleman, for the 
support of orphan females, who learn a trade and 
receive a marriage-portion in case of their form- 
ing an alliance with the sanction of the patrons. 
The most beautiful artificial flowers are manu- 
factured by the inmates of this establishment, and 
embroidery in muslin and cambric forms another 
part of their employment. As we purchased some 
G 2 


on our former visit, we did the same on this, 
reflecting with gratitude that the Almighty had 
graciously permitted us to survive, and, after so 
long a period, revisit this admirable establish- 
ment in health and comfort. There are two hun- 
dred girls supported, besides matrons, nurses, 
cooks, &c. A handsome chapel attracted our 
attention, and after passing the lower corridor, we 
entered the flower-rooms, where cases of flowers, 
fruit and needlework are kept on show for sale. 
A priest, and some of the matrons and young wo- 
men, all neatly dressed in the same style, attended 
us. Our purchases having been arranged, we 
were shown the different dormitories, every apart- 
ment being conspicuous for cleanliness and order. 
On the opposite side of the square is a building 
appropriated to the infirmary, to which two phy- 
sicians are attached. The brightness of the coppers 
in the kitchen corresponded with the nicety of the 
stone floors and wooden dressers. The tables were 
laid in the dining-room, and a pint glass-decan- 
ter of wine was placed for each person, at the 
side of the knife, fork, spoon, and plate. They 
have three meals a day. The breakfast is but 
spare, merely bread and water, but the dinner 
consists of soup, meat, vegetables, &c., and in the 
evening they have soup, bread, and vegetables. 
There is a nice garden and small farm attached ; 

GENOA. 85 

and they grind their own flour, make their bread, 
wine, and oil : in fact, the institution is a little 
town in itself, governed with admirable order and 
cleanliness. Our next visit was to Palais Palla- 
vicini, dit delle Peschiere, a country residence of 
the Marquis Pallavicini : the admirable order and 
taste of the garden, aided by numbers of foun- 
tains, grottoes, statues, and pebbled pavement, 
forming various devices, display a combination of 
art, industry, and good taste. The housekeeper 
presented me with a choice bouquet ; and the 
gardener displayed a variety of camellias, pine- 
apple, pepper, tea, and coffee-plants ; orange, 
lemon, and citron-trees, all kept and preserved 
with the strictest care. The designs of the build- 
ing were by Galeas Alessi, one of the best archi- 
tects of Genoa, and of the school of Michael 

Tuesday, January 8. Hotel de Quatre Nations. 

Walked with M round the walls to the 

synagogue. This edifice has been erected one hun- 
dred and eighteen years, and one of its founders 
was a Mr. Mendes. There are many poor here, 
as elsewhere. A young man from Tunis asked 
assistance ; the rabbi said he had arrived about 
three days ago : he had a fearfully emaciated look, 
but his figure and countenance were superior ; 
and upon receiving a trifle he eagerly seized 


M 's hand and mine and kissed them. Again 

we observed the busy scene in the port ; boats of 
corn being unladen, the men standing on it with 
their bare feet. A beautiful new street, to be 
called Alberto Felice, is being constructed. The 
houses will be of immense magnitude, the large 
blocks of plaster and stone pilasters, which form' 
their walls, giving proof already of their intended 
magnificence. This, and the beautiful new pro- 
menade, with hedges of laurestinus and roses 
encircling the fountains, will be an immense 
improvement and advantage to the inhabitants, 
and form a contrast to the narrow ancient streets 
impassable to carriages. Genoa, among its other 
splendid objects attracting notice, may hope soon 
to boast of equipages. 

Wednesday, January 9. Genoa to Chiavari. 
At nine o'clock we took leave of the Hotel de 
Quatre Nations, where we had passed a delight- 
fully happy week, finding great civility from the 
host and attendants. In passing through the 
streets of Genoa, I could but re-admire the mag- 
nificent palaces, and, perhaps, form a wish to see 
them again : it would not be amiss, in that case, 
to engage un etage in one of them, as it is no un- 
common thing for a part or the whole of some of 
them to be let ; the proprietors often possessing 
others at Rome, Milan, or some other city. 


A delightful morning cast a brilliancy on the 
mountains, orange-groves, and sea, by the side of 
which, but considerably above it, ran our preci- 
pitous path. The road was in the best order, and 
not alarmingly steep, but winding round the 
sides of the mountains, sometimes down to the 
sea-shore. We passed several villages bordering 
the bays, and hills crowned with country-houses ; 
displaying a rich population, supported by the 
fruits of the surrounding fields, well and indus- 
triously cultivated. The marble and stone in the 
environs present many facilities for building and 
decoration. We passed under three galleries cut 
through the rock, and bulging into the sea. In 
descending into Rapello and Chiavari the leaders 
were sent back. Arrived at the Hotel de la Paste 
a quarter before four o'clock strolled down the 
arcade, where the shops are situated, and walked 
into a handsome church in the place. 

Thursday, January 10. Chiavari to La Spezia. 
The night was stormy shutters blowing back- 
wards and forwards, to the great risk of the 
windows and the certain interruption of rest, 
which was rather annoying, as we had ordered the 
horses at six o'clock, by which time we were in 
the carriage. The moon and stars were still dif- 
fusing their placid light around, and reflecting 
their silvery brightness in the water. We had to 


cross a bridge over a torrent called the Lavagna. 
For hal-an-hour the road continued broad and 
level, lined by two rows of trees, succeeded by a 
bank of beautiful aloes close to the sea. Again the 
mountains reared their majestic heads, but as the 
road was not generally so precipitous they lost 
somewhat of their power to terrify. When the 
high wind made the windows tremble, we judged 
it prudent to descend. On gaining the summit, 
two beautiful bays the towns of Chiavari and 
Sestri on their borders ; mountains above, with 
monasteries and campanelli, presented a delight- 
ful coup-d'oei?. 

The Brocco and Borghetto mountains appeared 
as formidable and sternly grand as ever. We 
observed some new houses, and traces of cultiva- 
tion wherever human industry could possibly be 
brought into exercise. The shallow soil, sup- 
ported by stone walls, shelving up immense 
heights, appeared almost to defy the efforts of 
either ingenuity or toil. Sometimes those ardu- 
ous labours are rendered unavailing by over- 
powering gales, when the vines, the walls, and 
the soil are at once precipitated into the deep 
abyss. Icicles and ice shining on the rocks were 
visible to-day more frequently than hitherto. In 
descending into this town, we allowed the leaders 
again to be taken off. Arrived at La Spezia at 
four o'clock. 


The postillions drove to I' Hotel cV Unirers in- 
stead of la Croix de Matte, the one we had formerly 
put up at, without our observing it until the 
luggage was taken off. This was a source of some 

vexation to M , who always prefers going to 

the same. However they did their possible to 
make us comfortable. We walked on the pro- 
menade down the pier, and observed the beautiful 
and spacious pool, and the new public gardens, 
with rows of fruit-trees and shrubs. 

Friday, January 1L. La Spezia to Carrara. 
I purchased a small hat of straw, a part of the 
costume of the country. There is something 
gratifying in these mementoes of a journey, re- 
minding us of the characteristics of different 
countries. The grand objects of nature readily 
implant their images in the mind, but those of 
art are more easily forgotten, proving thereby 
their comparative insignificance. 

We were rather amused with the volubility of 
our last waiter ; among other circumstances he 
recounted, was that of a lady and gentleman 
being at the hotel who were but recently united 
in the holy state of marriage, but in whose ages 
and appearance there was a remarkable disparity. 
The lady was about eighteen years old, and ex- 
tremely diminutive ; the gentleman, nearly sixty 
and very tall. At nine o'clock, we pursued our 


journey to Carrara, where we arrived about half- 
past one. The accommodation at the hotel was 
very indifferent ; large rooms, bat locks that 
would not act, and which obliged us to sit in a 
draught, whereby I increased my cough. The valet- 
de-place immediately offered his services, of which 
we availed ourselves, and repaired for a couple of 
hours to the studii of various sculptors, among 
whom the best is Vincenzo Borranni. We also 
walked into the church, a handsome building, rich 
in marble, and possessing some paintings. But 
there is a general want of neatness and finish in 
the edifices though materials are so abundantly at 

Saturday, January 12. Carrara. Soon after 
breakfast we were visited by an elderly gentleman 
and his two nephews ; the first having been a 

correspondent of M 's late father, who carried 

on considerable business with this town in marble. 
It was as interesting as affecting to hear a conver- 
sation marked by respect and friendship on the 
one hand, and on the other by a true feeling of 
filial affection towards the memory and character 
of a person long ago deceased, but fresh and vivid, 
in the mind of the son and the friend. A letter in 
his handwriting was produced and read by 

M with a degree of admiration, which the 

writing and language fully justified. That which 


in this instance was valuable, time seemed re- 
luctant to efface. Would it were always so ! 

We employed the day in viewing works of art, 
and in visiting the Musee, an establishment for the 
instruction of youth in the arts and sciences. It is 
supported by the government. There are at 
present about two hundred pupils, among whom 
is one young man, now about eighteen, who has 
succeeded in obtaining several prizes for the best 
drawings and designs. His talent manifested 
itself at an early age, his first prize having been 
awarded at nine years old. We observed two 
children amusing themselves in the street, one 
with a piece of marble resembling a little block, 
the other measuring it with a paper compass. 
Thus does imitation steal into the infant mind, and 
become matured with age either for good or evil. 
The day has been extremely hot ; the sun setting 
between the mountains, diffusing its golden tints, 
and sinking below the horizon in glowing majesty- 

Sunday, January 13. Carrara fo Leghorn. 
M - wishing to pass the anniversary of his 
father's death at Leghorn, we arose this morning 
at the early hour of two ; and were en route by a 
quarter-past four, the horses having been ordered 
at three. To our great annoyance, we had to wait 
their arrival from Massa more than an hour. In- 
quiry or reproof as to this neglect was futile : it 


is better to bear patiently that which is incurable, 
particularly in a foreign country, than with cho- 
leric dispositions. However, the men proved care- 
ful drivers, and the rich plains of Tuscany had 
sufficient beauty, even at this season, to inspire 
us with gratitude and satisfaction ; for though 
the vines and elms were divested of their foliage, 
still their graceful forms, with their promised 
worth, and the green flax and young wheat spring- 
ing up between gave birth to a thousand sweet 
associations. Handsome country-seats embel- 
lished the hills, with woods of olives, thickly 
planted up to the summits. The roads in excellent 
order, broad, and protected by parapets. It is 
now the season for pruning the vine and gathering 
the olives. The sun's genial warmth induces the 
people to be much out of the house ; they not only 
sit on the road-side at work, but dress their hair 
out of doors : it is often a Sunday's pastime to 
have the head of one young woman in the lap of 
another, arranging the hair, &c. We breakfasted 
at an excellent hotel, at Lucca, the Pelican, and 
then pursued our route through a continued rich 

Leghorn presents itself to view long before 
the traveller arrives there. Several canals aid 
the communication of the city with the neigh- 
bouring districts, and mules and donkeys are 


everywhere seen laden with barrels of oil or 
wine, &c., which articles form the principal 
branches of commerce between this and Lucca. 
We arrived at the Locanda San Marco at half- 
past three. M proceeded instantly to syna- 
gogue to offer his prayers in memory of his de- 
ceased parent. This procured us the early 

visit of Mr. L M , who came about 

seven to the hotel. The host, Mr. Thompson, 
also came to pay his devoirs : he stated that Leg- 
horn had suffered materially by the cholera, but 
more by the fear excited than by its actual 
ravages. The steamboats bring many visitors, 
but commerce had declined, though at this 
moment there was a great deal doing in corn, 
and cargoes of that article were now ready and 
waiting the arrival of vessels, which have been 
engaged from England to export it. 

Monday, January 14. Leghorn. I availed 
myself of a breakfast sola, to indulge until a late 
hour for the benefit of repose, finding my cold 
rather troublesome. I was honoured with visitors 
before I had commenced my toilette ; Madame 
J and Mr. P were announced : it de- 
volved on M to keep up a conversation until 

I could make my appearance. Eleven years had 
effected but slight alteration to the prejudice of 
either father or daughter-in-law. His son was 


confined with the gout ; thus every country is 
subject to diseases. I had just commenced writing 
to my dear sister A , when another gentle- 
man was introduced, a Mr. B ; he con- 
tinued for nearly an hour in conversation, describ- 
ing the situation of our brethren in this city. 
Many improvements have been effected in the 
buildings and streets, and by the general enlarge- 
ment of the town, by throwing back the walls 
and gates. He confirmed our opinion, that com- 
merce was not so flourishing at the present junc- 
ture ; for property which formerly was appro- 
priated to foreign enterprise, now became in- 
vested in these new buildings, thereby confining 
the circulation and returns. 

Tuesday, January 15. Leghorn, Locanda San 
Marco. Finding myself better, I accompanied 

my dear M in an open carriage to pay visits ; 

among the rest was one to Count and Countess 

L , who have a magnificent residence in Via 

Nuova. This gentleman purchased, not long 
ago, some land, which was discovered to pos- 
sess valuable chemical properties ; he now em- 
ploys about one thousand persons on the estate, 
and sells the article at a great profit. 

They say he has amassed a large fortune ; cer- 
tainly his house is most splendidly decorated 
with marbles, paintings, antiquities, and elegan- 


cies of every description. The Grand Duke has 
conferred upon him the title of count, in addition 
to that of chevalier, which he previously pos- 
sessed ; and his eldest daughter, a handsome 
young lady, is married to a baron. The poor man 
who sold the estate committed suicide, broken- 
hearted and distracted, at having sacrificed for 
a comparative trifle that which was soon after 
proved to be of so much value. The popu- 
lation of Leghorn amounts to about seventy thou- 
sand, from seven to eight thousand of which are 
of our community. The character of the people 
seems similar to that of the Genoese ; they delight 
in gesticulation and clamour, and are cheerful 
and industrious. The men spread out the corn 
with their feet, and several other disgusting 
habits prevail while they are loading the sacks, 
which makes one reflect that even bread, the 
staff of life, is not the nicest article of food. 

Wednesday, January 16. Leghorn to Massa. 
In consequence of not having completed our pur- 
chases at Carrara, we have resolved to return. 
M - having a severe head-ache, I walked out 
attended by Armstrong before breakfast, to see 
some collections of marble and alabaster, and pur- 
chased a small model of the leaning tower of Pisa. 

I found on my return M busy answering 

notes, and Mr. L. M waiting to say farewell. 


We left Leghorn at eleven, after calling to see the 
handsome synagogue, which is about two hun- 
dred and fifty years old. A numerous throng of 
people stood gazing at the carriage until we again 

drove off. The day being fine, M soon found 

himself restored by exercise in the pure atmo- 
sphere. The detention for examining the pass- 
port at the different confines is somewhat tedious, 
in Tuscany, Lucca, and Modena, and we did not 
reach the summit of Montramedo until dusk. 
Whatever dread some caverns in the rocks might 
have created, the soft and glittering stars speedily 
dissipated. The country-people conducting the 
yoked oxen with loads of dried leaves and prun- 
ings of vines and elms, tranquilly passing to 
their night's rest after the labours of the day, 
.were all we encountered on the mountain, and at 
six o'clock we were seated at the very comfort- 
able fireside of Fra^ois Esmecol, Hotel de Quatre 
Nations, Massa. 

We recognised several names in the visitor's 
book, and many were the eulogies justly passed 
on the civility and cleanliness of this establish- 

Thursday, January 17. Massa. We had a 
small carriage with a pair of post-horses to take 
us to Carrara, about one poste, along a rough and 
mountainous path. This is the feast of St. 


Antonio, and all the horses in the district were 
being taken to receive their annual blessing from 
the saint. On approaching the town we were 
saluted by our Friday's guide, who again accom- 
panied us to the various studios; at several M 

made purchases, and gave an order for our arms 
to be executed in basso-relievo. The sculptors 
are employed at this place in supplying marble 
columns, friezes, and other decorations for a new 
royal palace, which is in progress of erection at 
St. Petersburgh, in place of that burnt last 

There were many articles very tempting : works 

of art are dangerous and seductive ; M says 

I shall ruin him by this day's purchase. The 
artists are eager to dispose of their works, and do 
not appear to be surrounded by great luxuries. 
It is no small satisfaction to be enabled to en- 
courage industry, securing at the same time the 
gratification of one's own taste. Returned from 

Carrara at six o'clock. A Mr. D , an artist 

of this town, called on us, and stated that he had 
just sent a large vase to England, an order for the 
Queen, and offered his services. 

Friday, January 18. Massa to Florence. 
We were again detained half an hour for the 
horses, having ordered them at four o'clock, at 
which early hour we were in readiness, and set off 



at half-past. Our carriage-lamps burnt well, and 
numbers of stars illumined the firmament. 

The sound of church-bells falls solemnly on the 
ear, when the busy world is sunk in slumber. 
How beautiful it is to watch the advance of 
dawn, the first break of light along the horizon, 
the mild waning of the stars ; and the peasant 
commencing the early toils of the day ! The 
smiling valleys of Tuscany, even when the trees 
are bereft of their foliage, exhibit the bounty of 
nature, and the industry of the human race. 
Small squares of land, divided by trees supporting 
festoons of vine, seem like so many sets of qua- 
diilles marked out on green carpets of flax, hemp, 
and wheat. The ground is neatly trenched, and 
readily lets off the water from the Apennines, 
forming streams on each side the road. We 
breakfasted at Lucca, and found the meal 
extremely salutary after a very cold morning's 
drive, the frost and ice in many parts exhibiting 
winter under a sterner aspect than I had supposed 
he would assume in the plains of Italy. At 
Pistoja an extra horse was taken for the ascent of 
the mountains. We passed many villages and 
towns, some of which hang beetling on the brow 
of lofty hills. The female peasantry near Florence 
wear unbecoming black beaver hats, more proper 
for their husbands, the head-dress of some, how- 


ever, was a scarlet cloth cap, with a blue tassel 
a la Grecque, others had merely their hair neatly 
dressed, and were sitting outside their doors, 
plaiting straw, spinning, or turning the wheel. 
The employment of the people is a great bless- 
ing. Wherever industry is to be found, cheer- 
fulness, health, and good temper are generally 
the accompaniments. The postes seem much 
longer in this part of the country than heretofore, 
and we were later than we expected and than our 
informant led us to believe. We at length, how- 
ever, thanks to the Almighty, reached Florence in 
safety, and after renewed examinations of the pass- 
ports, drove to the Hdtel Schneider. The apart- 
ments near the river are extremely cold, but after 
seeing rooms on the other side of the house, we 
remain in the first shown to us, neither being well 
adapted to a cold season. Some chambers are 
even without fire-places, and their lofty stone 
walls and stone floorings little agree with our ideas 
of comfort. Indeed, we had promised ourselves a 
delightful week's sojourn at this celebrated hotel, 
but either the house or the climate we think 
must be altered. Poor Mr. Schneider himself is 
no more. How glaringly manifest, wherever we 
go, are the ravages of time ! Most travellers are 
gone to Rome, the centre of attraction for the 

H 2 


Saturday, January 19. Florence. M went 

to synagogue, the weather was extremely cold, 
and we suffered in the house far more than in 
our comfortable English home. I cough and 
sneeze in consequence. We had the gratification 
of receiving several letters from our friends, with 
the pleasing intelligence of our dear brother 

B 's gradual improvement. My sister A 

is also better, but poor L has not recovered 

her voice. May the Almighty grant them all a 
speedy and perfect restoration ! The north side 
of the Arno is rendered warm and salubrious by 
the reflection of the southern sun, and it is ac- 
cordingly greatly frequented by promenaders of 
every class. I should advise any one subject to 
cough or pulmonary complaint by all means to 
avoid the northern aspect in winter. 

We walked into the church of 8. Maria del 
Fiore, which Michael Angelo called Sua sposa. 
It is a spacious edifice, and was commenced 
in the thirteenth century. The cupola is remark- 
able for its height, and for being covered with 
various coloured marbles. The interior was 
painted by Vasari and Zucchero, and the pave- 
ment, formed of different-coloured marbles, is 
extremely beautiful. 8. Giovanni, or the Bap- 
tistry, has three bronze doors in superb basso- 
relievo, one by Andrea Pisano, the other two by 


Lorenzo Ghiberto, the subjects are from the Old 
Testament, and so admirably executed that 
Michael Angelo said they were fit for the gates of 

Sunday, January 20. Florence. One degree 
warmer to-day, the thermometer in our chamber 

at forty-four. A Mr. P paid us a visit. He 

gave us a gratifying account of the Tuscan go- 
vernment, of the liberal disposition of the Grand- 
duke towards all creeds, and the satisfactory situa- 
tion of our brethren in this city. The number 
amounts to about three thousand, of whom several 
are extremely well off, and keep their carriages 
and country-houses. No profession, however, is 
open to them except that of medicine. Such re- 
strictions must necessarily have a tendency to 
confine the mind ; but if under these disadvan- 
tages, the sublime desire of pleasing Him to whom 
the most powerful must bend, be never lost sight 
of, and our actions be organized and regulated 
accordingly, the view is no longer limited, but 
the spirit frees itself by a bold effort, from 
the shackles imposed by mistaken zeal or selfish 
policy. Commerce, the road to wealth, is yet 
left open. Several houses have made a tobacco- 
contract with the government for seven years- 
The Grand-duke imagining that the offer of the 
contractors might prove inimical to their interest, 


inquired whether they wished to reconsider it. 
They, with submission, thanked him, but kept to 
their proposal, and it proved sufficiently advan- 
tageous in its result. This was alike honourable 
and generous to both parties. We walked, and 
passed the evening at the opera. The perform- 
ance was Chiara di Eosemberghe and TIdolo del 

Monday, January 21. Florence. Weather 
extremely cold and damp : my cold is so much 
increased that we determined to leave Schneider's 
Hotel, and have engaged rooms on the opposite 
side of the Arno, at the Hotel de la Grande 
Bretagne, excellently furnished, spacious and 
warm. Naturally we felt reluctant to quit a 
house at which we had first taken up our abode ; 
but we found it at this season perceptibly cold 
and damp ; and dare not longer risk our health. 
In summer, doubtless, Schneider's Hotel would 
be preferred. Our second visit to Santa Croce was 
attended with renewed delight. Here are de- 
posited the ashes of the most celebrated geniuses 
of the land, and in beholding the statues and 
busts of Dante, Alfieri, Michael Angelo, Gallileo, 
Machiavelli, and others, where painting, sculp- 
ture, and architecture, alike vie to attest their 
merit, the mind rejoices at being allowed to 
meditate among so many relics of worth, and 


feels, in its momentary excitement, to partake of 
their noble impulses and exalted views. The 
monument to the memory of Alfieri was executed 
by Canova at the expense of the Countess of 
Albany, and that in honour of Dante was the 
work of Stephen Ricci, done in 1830. The 
Niccolini chapel is rich in rare marbles and 
exquisite paintings. The Four Sybils in the 
angles, painted by Volterrano, appear like life. 
Grotto-works adorn the convent. Santa Croce 
may truly be styled a sacred depository of the 
combined talent of ages long gone by, but whose 
power still operates to adorn and exalt human 
nature. In every turning of a street or square 
the lover of the arts may be gratified in this city ; 
columns, statues, campanilli, churches, palaces 
command and secure attention. I found myself 
towards evening greatly indisposed. 

Tuesday, January 22. Florence. This morning 
I feel much the same, but with the kind attention 

of my dear M , a warm suite of apartments, 

and keeping at home to-day, I hope soon to be 
perfectly well. The sky has all the appearance 
of that of England, when full of wintry vapour. 
Letter-writing and reading, with the purchase of 
a black dress for the Duchess of Wurtemberg, and 

a Leghorn hat, filled up the morning, till M 

went out to dinner. He returned early, and we 


employed the evening in reading and writing. I 
find silks and millinery extremely expensive here, 
perhaps strangers are imposed on. We had 
taken tickets for a very select concert, but did not 
go, on account of my health. It is more difficult 
I think to get rid of a cold here than in England. 
January 23. Hotel de Grande Bretagne. 
Florence. A oUill and rainy day: my cold is rather 
better, but I prudently keep within. I have little 
for my journal to-day. M went out for exer- 
cise about two o'clock, dined at three, and then 
went to the Cafe S. Martina, to read Galignani. 
In the mean time I commenced a letter to my 

dear sister J , and could not help expressing 

how deeply I felt the affectionate attentions 
which soothed my hours of indisposition. My 
table is graced by a beautiful bouquet, presented 
to me by my dear M . Would I could trans- 
port some of the delicious flowers sold in every 
street through which we pass, to our dear friend 
and parent ! It is the custom here to place straw 
under the carpets, I suppose in order to prevent 
the stone floors from injuring them, and also to 
render them warmer and softer to the feet. I 
observed, in the Life of Michael Angelo Buona- 
rotti, which formed this evening's amusement, 
that the arts and literature flourished most con- 
spicuously about the same epochs in different 


countries. An interesting anecdote is related of 
Giotto, an eminent artist of the twelfth century : 
he was a shepherd boy, and being observed by 
Cimabue, while tracing the figure of a lamb on a 
piece of stone, the latter was so struck with the 
perfection of the attempt, that he immediately 
engaged him in the study of painting, which he 
prosecuted with such success that his works 
became models for other artists, and ornaments 
to his country. 

Thursday, January 24. Florence. We had 
a close carriage in order to visit the several 
celebrated churches of this city. Among the 
more remarkable of these edifices are the San 
Lorenzo, and 8. Maria de Nouvelle, commenced 
in the year 1221, under the direction of the 
Campi, two Dominican brothers. They contain 
paintings of Cimabue, Giotto, and other highly 
esteemed masters of the early schools. 

Surrounded by such objects the poet sang : 

" Look around ! 

And know that where we stand, stood oft and long, 
Oft till the day had gone, Raphael himself, 
He and his haughty rival : patiently, 
Humbly, to learn of those who came before, 
To steal a spark from their authentic fire, 
Theirs who first broke the universal gloom, 
Sons of the morning," 

We also revisited the convent of Dominican 
monks, who have a fine establishment for drugs, 


chemistry, perfumery, and liqueurs. Being 
tempted by the celebrity of this manufactory, as 
well as by the admirable order and nicety of the 
different objects, we purchased some perfumery 
and chocolate. The friar who served us was re- 
markably mild and civil in his manner. We also 
rode round the public gardens, which are well 
planted with trees and shrubs. A casino and 
country houses vary the scene, bounded by the 
Apennines on either side, with the Arno beneath. 

This river in many parts is extremely shallow ; 
a handsome suspension-bridge is constructed 
over it, but the curious old stone bridge, with 
shops above, and a subterranean passage leading 
from the Pitti Library to the Lorenzo Chapel, is 
one of the most remarkable objects in Florence. 
It somewhat reminded us of the Rialto at 
Venice, though not so handsome. We made a 
stop at the Cafe the refreshment at which, with 
a sight of Galignani, containing news within six 
days from London, was very acceptable. The 
promenade on one side the Arno is thronged 
from two till four with passengers on foot or 
riding, and flower-girls, with choice bouquets, 
thrust the flowers into the hands of people 
passing, with or without their will. 

Friday, January 25. Florence. Hotel Grande 
Bretagne. It is delightful to revisit objects 


which, from their own merit and excellence, 
have made a deep impression on the imagination. 
Such is the Palazzo Pitti. The massive stone walls 
of this magnificent structure are surrounded 
with gay and smiling gardens, viewed in their 
full extent from the large windows of the palace. 
Its interior decorations are of the noblest kind, 
the lofty ceilings being covered with frescoes by 
the most renowned masters, and bordered with 
splendid gilding ; while the walls are richly 
hung with the works of Michael Angelo, Raphael, 
Titian, Vandyke, Carlo Dolci, Salvator Rosa, 
Bartholomew, Murillo, Leonardo da Vinci, 
Andrea del Sarte, Perugini, &c. 

There were tables of the most beautiful mosaic, 
in oriental marbles and precious stones ; and a 
cabinet of ebony inlaid with lapis-lazuli, agate, 
&c., on which were painted historical subjects 
drawn from the Old and New Testament, to 
imitate mosaic ; while the opposite side being 
let down, discovered carved figures of saints and 
apostles in different shades of amber : then an 
organ, secret drawers, writing implements, all of 
the most costly materials and curious work- 
manship. This was all shown to us with the 
greatest politeness and attention, by the person 
who had the keys. He then led us to the bath 
of Carrara marble, contained in a room the walls 



of which are covered with fluted blue satin and 
looking-glasses, each corner being occupied by a 
beautiful statue of white marble. Canova's 
Venus, and a Bather in bronze, were among the 
objects which solicited our admiration. 

Saturday, January 26. Florence. This being a 
rainy morning M deferred going to syna- 
gogue till noon. Yesterday evening we went 
to the Italian synagogue, which was also well 
attended to-day. The ark is richly carved in 
metal. Afterwards we visited the Gallery ; but 
as it closes to the public at three, we had not 
sufficient time to devote even to the corridors. 
The hour glided away imperceptibly; and statues, 
busts, and sarcophagi: and other noble ornaments 
of the vestibule of the Medici and Roman em- 
perors, the two Wolves, the Horse, the Hercules, 
and the Fawn, served but to stimulate a pas- 
sionate desire for long and patient observation. 
A glance at a few paintings and the Medician 
Venus was all that we could obtain, but we pro- 
mise ourselves another day for the enjoyment of 
this rich intellectual treat. Artists, allowed as 
they are to sit and copy anything they choose, in 
the midst of these warm and magnificent rooms, 
enjoy an inestimable advantage. With such in- 
citements the fine arts can never droop or decay. 

The carriages of the Grand -duke passed us in 


the streets ; two were drawn by six horses each, 
with outriders and attendants at the sides of 
the carriage. His Royal Highness is spoken of 
as being extremely kind-hearted, and solicitous 
for the happiness and contentment of his sub- 
jects. But it is not always that our wishes 
have free scope for action, though disposed to 
the most laudable and advantageous views. 

Lady Augusta and Mr. F left their cards. 

Sunday, January 27. Florence. The first day 
of the Carnival. Everybody is out, but the wea- 
ther is cold and windy. We drove in a close car- 
riage to the gardens, but fearful of the snow on 
the mountains, returned before three. Numerous 
carriages thronged the roads, conspicuous among 
which were the royal cortege, with six horses to 
each carriage, followed by a guard of ten horse- 
men, dressed in scarlet and gold, and that of the 
Neapolitan minister, whose phaeton and four, 
with postillions and attendants, presented a very 
smart appearance. Many masks passed along the 
crowded streets, lively and full of gambols, but 
not unruly perhaps kept in awe by the military 
who guarded the avenues. We again attended the 
opera. Salvini, with a repetition of the last ballet, 
were performed ; the pit was crowded, and the 
boxes tolerably so. Towards the middle of the 
performance several masks entered the pit. I 


imagine they were not of the most respectable 
class of society, but their behaviour was quiet and 
inoffensive. I do not think the dancing equal to 
the French, although their tableaux are graceful 
and elegant. There are many English here. The 
absence of Lords Burgersh and Normanby is 
extremely regretted. 

Monday, January 28. Florence. Having seen 
an artist at the gallery copying a beautiful little 
painting of Carlo Dolci, I obtained his address, 
and agreed for the purchase of several other 
copies from great masters Poetry, Judith with 
the head of Holofernes, and Murillo's Virgin and 

Child. M being satisfied with the choice, 

paid for them. I feel great satisfaction in this 
acquisition, which I hope to behold in Park-lane 
and East-cliff, as agreeable mementos of worth 
and talent. We had purposed leaving this city 
to-morrow morning, and had made our arrange- 
ments accordingly ; but the increased desire of 
revisiting the Gallery and the Medici Chapel 
delayed our departure for a few days. I hope 
we shall not be disappointed in obtaining apart- 
ments at Rome, having deferred our visit to 
this late epoch of the Carnival. 

Tuesday, January 29. Florence. The Royal 
Academy is a noble institution, formed for the 
benefit of young artists. There are different rooms 


of paintings, sculpture, casts, and drawings, and 
the attendants are most civil and polite. A beau- 
tiful picture by Carlo Dolci is remarkable for its 
delicacy and perfection of colouring and form. 
The manufactory of inlaid agate, jasper, and 
precious marbles is peculiar to this establishment 
and city, and exhibits conspicuously the power 
of ingenuity and perseverance. 

We saw a table being made which employs 
eighteen men, and will take ten years to finish. It 
is for the ducal palace. A small round table cost 
2,500. Several urns, capitals for the famous 
Medici Chapel, were in hand. The person who 
showed us the manufactory took us into the va- 
rious rooms where the whole process of cutting 
the stones, and forming them into various flowers, 
fruits, and devices was exhibited ; nor would he 
accept any remuneration for his trouble. Another 
look into Santa Croce engaged our attention in 
going home. We had a heavy shower of rain this 
evening. M gave me a handsome bouquet. 

Wednesday, January 30. Florence. As we 
remain a few days longer here, in order to see the 
paintings and other works of art more leisurely, 
we passed the forenoon at the Royal Gallery, one 
of the most interesting places that can be visited. 
The genius of sculpture and painting has enriched 
it with its noblest efforts, while gems, medals, 


bronzes, Etruscan vases, and Egyptian antiquities 
fill up every vacant interval. The rooms lined 
with portraits of the most celebrated masters, 
painted by themselves, are particularly interesting. 
Madame le Brun and Angelica Kauffman attracted 

M 's fancy, and he engaged an artist, F. Vin- 

censio Corsi, to copy them. We purchased two 
others of the same artist. A heavy shower of 
rain obliged us to take refuge in a cafe, where we 
expected to find the English paper ; but a gentle- 
man kept Galignani till he would have quite 
worn out our patience, but for the amusement 
afforded us by several persons, some of whom 
offered for sale small alabaster and marble figures, 
while others solicited our attention to specimens 

of the most beautiful plants and flowers. M 

purchased a large assortment of geraniums, and 
some camellias. There is a grand ball this even- 
ing at the Palazzo Pitti. 

Thursday, January 31. Florence. We passed 
the whole forenoon at various picture-shops, and 
made several purchases at S. Gaetano Botticelli's 
and others. The price of the mosaic tables was 
much too high some, made to order, were shown 
to us. They were small round tables, with a black 
ground, a narrow border, and small centre-piece, 
and three or four figures, either butterflies or birds, 
formed of different-coloured stones. The price of 


these tables was sixty or seventy pounds. We had 
difficulty in finding the person with whom the 
key of the Medici Chapel is deposited, but at last 
obtained access to this superb monument of the 
most renowned of Florentine families. The tombs 
designed by Buonarotti, the walls inlaid with jas- 
per, agate, lapis-lazuli, and other precious stones, 
by turns attracted and rivetted attention. 

The ceiling is painted by Benvenuto, the pre- 
sent President of the Academy des Beaux Arts. It 
has been finished about two years, and was nine 
years in progress. They are still working at the 
inlaid marbles, forming urns and pilasters, but it 
can only be finished at an immense expenditure 
of both wealth and time. We paid a last visit 
to Santa Croce, offering, at the same time, a tribute 
of respect to departed greatness, and delighting 
our minds with those solemn meditations, which, 
though so rarely to be enjoyed in the world, 
afford the best, the most permanent, and the 
noblest of our gratifications. 

" In Santa Croce's holy precincts lie 
Ashes which make it holier ; dust which is 
Even in itself an immortality, 
Though there were nothing save the past, and this 
The particle of those sublimities 
Which has relapsed to chaos : here repose 
Angelo's, Alfieri's bones ; and his, 
The starry Galileo, with his woes ; 
Here Michiavelli's earth, return'd to whence it rose. 


These are four minds, which, like the elements, 

Might furnish forth creation : Italy ! 

Time, which hath wrong'd thee with ten thousand rents 

Of thine imperial garment, shall deny, 

And hath denied, to every other sky, 

Spirits which soar from ruin : thy decay 

Is still impregnate with divinity, 

Which gilds it with revivifying day ; 

Such as the great of yore, Canova is to-day." 

Friday, February \. Florence. We have delayed 
our departure for Rome a week longer than we 
intended ; but I trust that the letters which we 
expect to receive will sufficiently compensate for 
this sacrifice of time. We went in search of a 

mosaic table : Dr. U accompanied us to some 

of the best artists, but we did not succeed in 
meeting with one to our taste. Many fine pic- 
tures were shown to us, but the price of professed 
originals is exorbitant ; we therefore contented 
ourselves with the acquisitions already made. It 
requires great judgment, as well as a good purse, 
to undertake the purchase of anything which 
bears the character of originality. 

We obtained a view of several old newspapers, 
(the Times], and with infinite regret heard of poor 
Edmund Goldsmid's death, which occurred at 
Rome the 1st of January. May his soul rest in 
peace ! This is the second young friend lately 
taken away from the midst of earthly prosperity, 
but translated, let us hope, to that of an immu- 


table and unclouded state. The most favoured in 
this world find their happiness blended with 
anxieties and inevitable heart-writhings, against 
which the hope of the future only can present a 
sufficient shield and support. The Lord's will be 
done, and may He indue us with strength for 
every coming trial ! 

Saturday, February 2. Florence. Went with 

M to synagogue. Several German females 

were present, and they wished to be very con- 
versant ; but I, as usual at a place of devotion, 
was as resolved to be taciturn. The shops were 
all closed to-day, and the streets were crowded 
in consequence of the fete of Candlemas. Several 
persons and children were carrying wax candles 
to present to different churches on the occasion. 
Posts were placed at the ends of the quay, to pre- 
vent carriages from incommoding the pedestrians 
who thronged the promenade. . We this evening 
prepared for our departure early to-morrow morn- 
ing. Dr. U came to take farewell, and offer 

his services, and we sent for M. A 's book, and 

were sorry to learn he was indisposed. M 

k went to read Galignani at the cafe, as they will 

not send this paper out. D ? s is an excellent 

establishment, very spacious, and supplies supe- 
rior refreshments at moderate charge. Three 
carriages are to leave the hotel to-morrow, we 
I 2 


therefore purpose being early. Several singing 
parties passed under our windows during the 
night. Their harmonious melodies reminded me 
of the serenades of old times. I have a very bad 
cold, but hope it will vanish as we proceed on 
our journey. 

Sunday, February 3. Arezzo. The stars and 
moon shone bright as we left the Hotel de Grande 
Bretagne, at six this morning : cloaks, shawls, 
and boas were put in requisition to exclude the 
cold, which I found increase my cough ; but to- 
wards noon, as the sun diffused its cheering rays, 
I found myself relieved, and we did justice to a 
cold fowl, provided for the journey, with a bottle 
of excellent Muscat of the country. 

Ice lay in considerable quantities on the sides 
of the road, but the valleys and hills, though di- 
vested of their brilliant clothing, looked graceful 
and smiling, the road winding in a pleasing and 
easy manner, and numerous villages and towns 
enlivening the scenery. 

We arrived at this town about half -past three 
o'clock, and seeing the streets filled with gaily- 
dressed persons, and some masks, M asked 

the waiter if there was any performance at the 
theatre. Yes, was the reply, there is an opera and 
a drama. We chose the former on account of the 
character which he gave it, and he immediately 


went to fetch the book. It was Beatrice di Tende, 
a tragedy. The performance commenced at eight 
and finished at eleven; but we retired at ten. On 
my return I missed my lace veil, and sent the ser- 
vant to see if I had left it in the box. It was not 
to be found, but I offered a reward in case of their 
forwarding it to Rome, should it be found here- 
after. Patience ! M good-temperedly agreed 

with me, that if no worse misfortune should occur 
during our journey, we might well bear quietly 
with this. 

Monday, February 4. Foligno. We were this 
morning again in the carriage by six o'clock. It 
was extremely cold, and much ice was lying about 
the country; but an excellent road, and extensive 
valleys richly cultivated and wooded, with the 
frequent occurrence of villages, picturesque old 
castles and monasteries, tended greatly to distract 
our thoughts from the severity of the weather. 
Mendicity is as prevalent as ever, poor old people 
and cripples surrounding our carriage at every 
post-house. We were three times obliged to add 
a pair of oxen to our horses, besides on two 
occasions a fifth horse ; and on ascending the 
rising ground on which Perugia stands, it was so 
extremely slippery that we considered it prudent 
to walk, and it was fortunate we did so, for soon 
one of the horses slipped down with the postil- 


lion : thanks to Heaven ! no worse consequence 
attended the accident than alarm to ourselves, 
the man thinking nothing of it, and the poor 
horse being soon lifted up, and again en route. 

We passed Incisa, the birth-place of Petrarch, 
and the beautiful and extensive lake of Thrasi- 
mene, celebrated for the fatal battle between 
Hannibal and the Romans under Flaminius. 

" Far other scene is Thrasimene now ; 
Her lake a sheet of silver, and her plain 
Rent by no savage, save the gentle plough ; 
Her aged trees rise thick as once the slain 
Lay where their roots are : but a brook hath ta'en 
A little rill of scanty stream and bed 
A name of blood from that day's sanguine rain ; 
And Sanguienetto tells ye where the dead 
Made the earth wet, and turn'd the unwilling waters red." 

Several small islands covered with trees, and ap- 
parently inhabited, gemmed the bosom of this 
noble sheet of water, and which was further en- 
livened by the appearance of fishing-boats. 

The plantations of olives and vines, fig and 
mulberry trees, which enrich the plains, must 
afford profitable employment to the population 
of the several towns and villages through which 
we passed. After a long but delightful journey 
we, with God's blessing, arrived safely at this 
town, about six o'clock. 

Tuesday, February 5. H6tel di Campana. Narni. 
Left Foligno a quarter before nine ; a lovely 

ROME. 119 

winter morning, the sun reflecting on the drifted 
snow, the green box-hedges peeping between, 
with glittering icicles hanging from the rocks, 
and the fine circular chain of snow round the 
Apennines, reaching to the blue firmament, alto- 
gether formed an exhilarating scene, the liveliness 
of which, however, was in some degree injured 
by the condition of the numerous poor which 
surrounded us at every post-house. We had some 
excellent fruit handed to us several times by 
decent-looking young women, who were eager to 
dispose of the produce of their fields and gardens. 
From Spoleto to Strettura we had six horses and 
two oxen. This one poste occupied more than 
three hours, the ascents and descents being ren- 
dered laborious and difficult by the snow and ice. 
There was a gradual thaw, but the postillions in 
this country appear to think very much of a 
fall of snow. Another pair of oxen was required 
before we reached Terni. The Valderno in spring 
and summer, when foliage covers the extensive 
plains of oaks, mulberries, and vines, and the 
banks of the rivers, the Arno, the Lavina, &c., 
are enriched with growing corn and flax, must 
indeed present a succession of the most delight- 
ful scenes. We arrived at this very comfort- 
able hotel at half -past five. 

Wednesday, February 6. Hotel de Russie. Rome. 


Thanks to the Almighty for our safe arrival 
in this city, though we have not been able to 
obtain comfortable apartments at any of the 
hotels, being at last obliged to put up with a 
third story at Hotel de Russie, the Carnival at- 
tracting so much company that there is not a 
room disengaged. 

We left Narni at seven o'clock this morning. 
The weather was extremely cold and dull, and 
the ice and snow on the ground seemed to alarm 
the postillions, if we may judge from the terrible 
noise they made at setting off. We had six horses 
and a pair of oxen up the ascent. The views were 
extremely picturesque and sublime. From Civita 
Castettana we had eight horses, two of which 
were unharnessed on gaining the summit. At 
Baccana there were several soldiers on the way, 
both horse and foot. We afterwards understood 
that a robbery had yesterday been committed by 
ten men on a French count, at two o'clock in the 
afternoon. At this spot I perceived the men looked 
at us very significantly. The roads are being 
Macadamized near Rome, and the land is enclosed 
and better cultivated in many parts, though much 
remains in an apparently neglected state. On 
our entering the Porta del Popolo, masks, scaf- 
folding for spectators, and horse-racing, with 
numbers of vehicles of all sorts, presented them- 

ROME. 121 

selves, and while Armstrong went to look for 
rooms, we were amused in the carriage by the 
gay scene. In the meantime a courier, who some 
years ago attended us to England, recognised us, 
and offered his services. 

Thursday, February 7. Rome. M returned 

to breakfast after a fruitless search for other 
apartments. He brought with him a large packet 
of letters, and Galignani's papers of a month's 
standing. The perusal of the letters caused some 
melancholy reflections. They contained sad ac- 
counts of the illness and death of some of our dear 

We ascertained last night that Mr. A. A. G- 
quitted this city for Naples the day before our ar- 
rival. It is our wish to join him there, and offer all 
the condolence in our power under his afflicting 
bereavement. After brooding and philosophising 
on the instability of life, the events of which alter- 
nate with each other, like night and day, or the 
storms and calms of the ocean, we proceeded to 
the Corso to dissipate care, in the gay, frolicsome, 
and crowded scene which there presented itself. 
A clear and bright sun made the carriages, masks, 
and company appear as though the world had 
never known distress. The retaliated attacks with 
confitti, by all panks and nations, young and old, 
rich and poor, masked and unmasked, must tend 


to the benefit of tailors and marchands des modes, 
for at the end of the day the black dresses were 
completely whitened, and the white made black. 
We obtained a very good room in the Corso, and 
saw the horses set off and run in good style. The 
governor in his state -carriage, attended by a 
military escort, was preceded by two other 
state carriages, and official personages in all the 
pomp of office. 

Friday, February 8. Rome. This is a quiet 
day in the Carnival festivities no masks or 
parade. We walked, however, through the Corso, 
looked at the shops, and entered the Cafe Nuovo, 
and inquired after little Baiocchi, who, poor fel- 
low, had died of the cholera. 

To be for the fourth time in Rome, after an 
interval of eleven years, appears indeed like a 
dream ; but the fountains, columns, obelisks, &c. 
of this city of many ages and of wonders, so people 
this land of dreams with realities, that time seems 
almost to have lost its power. Reflection how- 
ever, soon reawakens the heart to the sense of 
many sad events ; but may we never fail to keep 
in recollection the blessings which, throughout 
the vicissitudes of life, have continued to mani- 
fest the mercy of a heavenly Providence ! Then 
will our hearts not cease to overflow with 
acknowledgments of the bounty of God. 

EOME. 123 

Saturday, February 9. Rome. M went 

to synagogue, the distance preventing my ac- 
companying him. The president and secretary 
previously called upon us and manifested great 
politeness. How painful it is to find our people 
under so many disadvantages here ! Three thou- 
sand five hundred souls are obliged to maintain 
themselves by shops, and in a confined part of the 
city. Arts, sciences, mechanism are prohibited. 
Four times in the year two hundred are obliged to 
attend a sermon for their conversion. It is said 
that no proselytes are made, except occasionally 
from among the most destitute, Leo XII. de- 
prived them of the privilege granted by Pius VII. 
of keeping shops out of the Ghetto. The present 
pontiff has permitted them to have warehouses in 
the city. He is favourably disposed, and kind in 
his conduct, and it is to be hoped that the cardi- 
nals and the government will soon become 
equally so. 

We went to the room we had engaged in 
the Corso, to witness again the lively and varied 
amusements of the day. Open waggons, decorated 
with festoons of flowers and flags, were filled with 
parties of about a dozen persons in the same cos- 
tume, and who were the most active in their as- 
saults with confitti. The Duchess of S was 

among them. 


Sunday, February 10. Rome. We this day 
visited the Via Sacra, the Colosseum, the Pan- 
theon, the Church of S. Giovanni Laterano, the 
Scala Santa, and St. Peter's. These magnificent 
and admirable structures and works of art, when- 
ever viewed, inspire veneration and wonder at 
the capabilities of human genius. Rome ex- 
hibits the most striking contrasts of splendour 
and misery. Some of the old streets, through 
which we passed, were thronged with a population 
overwhelmed with care and poverty, while the 
next turning led to squares and streets filled with 
palaces, statues, and monuments. The Pincian 
Hill was the resort of all the fashionables this 
afternoon till dark, and the situation of this 
splendid drive gave due effect to the innumerable 
equipages, and throngs of elegantly-dressed per- 
sons, who, leaving their carriages, filled the pro- 
menades of this beautiful resort. We finished 
the gaieties and amusements of the day by going 
to the Opera, which was crowded. 

Monday, February 11. Rome. We considered 
ourselves fortunate in seeing St. Peter's illumi- 
nated. It is certainly a brilliant and magnificent 
spectacle ; the whole of the colonnade, as well as 
the cupola and church reflecting myriad streams 
of light on the beautiful fountains and statues 
below. It was in honour of the presence of the 

ROME. 125 

Grand Duke of - , who, it is said, has, since 
his sojourn here, been wounded by the darts of 
Cupid, but the fair one being of plebeian parents, 
dare not aspire to the hand of a sovereign prince, 
fearful of such a country as Siberia. She is said 

to be a Miss G , daughter of an English 

gentleman of small income, and one of eight 
sisters. The young hereditary duke, it is re- 
ported, was sent on his travels on account of his 
susceptibility to the tender passion. 

We have engaged a very nice barouche for the 
time of our stay here, and a valet-de-place. 

M at last presented his letters to Duke 

T - and others. The Duke sent us an invita- 
tion to a select ball to-night, to meet the Grand- 
duke, which we declined. Having purchased a 
supply of flowers and superior bon-bons, to return 
hostilities, we found these sweet and fragrant 
weapons most useful in answering the attacks we 
received, while a mask was found to be no less 
essential as defensive armour against the handf uls 
of confitti, aimed with no very light hand by some 
masked antagonist. The bouquets were thrown 
and received in a more graceful manner. About 
four the Corso was cleared of carriages for the 
races, and we entered our room, No. 22, II Corso. 

Tuesday, February 12. Rome. We purchased 
a fresh supply of elegant flowers and confitti to 


return the numerous challenges which we knew, 
from the experience of the previous days, we 
might expect to receive. The Corso was thronged ; 
cars, as before, decorated with artificial flowers, 
and each containing a little band of mimic 
warriors, poured forth perpetually thick showers 
of bouquets and sweetmeats. 

In the interval of these amusements we drove 
to Meloni's to take leave of Baron James de 

R , and his family. We then went to our 

room in the Corso to see the races, and met there 
an English family, consisting of a lady and gen- 
tleman, and their daughter. They knew us, as 
they seemed to do everybody in Rome, and soon 
entered into conversation. After the races the 
wax tapers were lighted, and all, whether at the 
windows or in carriages, were immediately em- 
ployed in blowing out or re-lighting them, and 
with mirth, wit, and nonsense, the amusements 
continued till past eight o'clock, when the crowd 
gradually dispersed, some hastening to dinner, 
and others to masked balls and other parties. 
Thus ended this year's carnival at Rome. So 
much does it engross the attention of many, that 
from the finale, of one to the commencement of 
another the mind is filled with anticipations of 
its gaieties. 

Wednesday, February 13. Velletri. We have 


again quitted Rome, after a second time witness- 
ing the carnival, a festivity only calculated for 
the lively and readily-excited spirits of the 

In passing the fountain di Trevi, it appeared 
to me more imposing and magnificent than be- 
fore. So do objects truly great increase in 
grandeur by a more familiar acquaintance. 

But in Rome, as I have before observed, splen- 
dour and misery force themselves upon the 
attention, in the way of contrast, more frequently 
than in almost any other city of the world, for 
there the mouldering magnificence of many ages 
appears side by side with modern palaces. Some 
in the glory of rich maturity, and others wanting 
still the wealth of ages to complete them: 

" Great and glorious Rome, queen of the earth, 
So far renown'd, and with the spoils enriched 
Of nations ; there the capitol thou seest, 
Above the rest lifting his stately head 
On the Tarpeian rock, her citadel 
Impregnable : and there Mount Palatine, 
The imperial palace, compass huge, and high 
The structure, skill of noblest architects, 
With gilded battlements conspicuous far, 
Turrets, and terraces, and glittering spires ! " 

At a quarter-past eleven we were on the Via 
Appia towards Naples. On changing horses at 
Torri di Mezzalia we had an escort of two sol- 
diers, the road having lately been infested with 


robbers. Prince P was stopped at La 

Storta on his way to Rome, by six men, who 
demanded his purse and watch. The contents 
of the former not satisfying them, they made a 
demand on the servants, one then quietly left the 
party. This happened only the day before our 
arrival, and we observed several gens-d'armes 
on the spot, while the two soldiers rode in full 
gallop by our carriage, looking at us with more 
than usual earnestness, intending, as we after- 
wards were informed, to become our escort in case 
of need. We continued to be protected up the 
hill from Albano to Genzano, which post required 
two extra horses. The trees are already bud- 
ding, and the corn appearing above the ground 
gives promise of the autumn's plenty. Green flax 
affords another species of luxuriant clothing for 
the land, and the country near Albano, beauti- 
fully diversified with hill and dale, presents a 
rich succession of vineyards and olive-groves. 
Far in the distance arose the snow-capped Apen- 
nines, while near at hand, in strange contrast 
with the life and brilliancy of the sun-lit scene, 
appeared many an ancient sepulchre, the tomb, 
perhaps of some poet, warrior, or philosopher. 

After an exceedingly agreeable journey we 
reached Velletri a quarter before five. While tea 
was being prepared we walked in the garden, 


where we were greatly delighted with the an- 
tique busts and statues with which it was adorned 
nor less with the fine orange and lemon- trees 
heavy with clusters of golden fruit. Some 
families who arrived after us, brought the infor- 
mation that four of the banditti had been taken, 
and that their chief was killed by the soldiers on 
whom he had fired. An exhibition was after- 
wards made of his body in every town through 
which they passed on their way to Naples. 

Thursday, February 14. Mola di Gaetd, 
Locanda di Cicerone. Leaving the very com- 
fortable post-house at a little past six, the morn- 
ing beaming with all the animation of spring, we 
soon found ourselves recompensed for stealing a 
few hours from the couch, by the pleasure at- 
tendant upon passing, with good horses and 
postillions, over a fine level road, through a 
richly-cultivated and extensive plain. The Pon- 
tine Marshes appear better drained than formerly, 
and the water on the sides of the road has been 
cleared of reeds and mud. Droves of horses, 
oxen, cows, and buffaloes overspread the wide 
pastures, nor were there wanting the gentler 
ornaments of a pastoral scene, numerous flocks 
of sheep and lambs. 

At Terracina the sea looked so blue and clear, 
and the stupendous rocks hung over it with so 


awful a grandeur, that to enjoy the full view 
we descended from the carriage while changing 
horses, and walked on. Beyond Fondi the depth 
of the caverns in the rocks might well shake the 
nerves of less experienced travellers, but even 
their apprehensions must soon be superseded by 
admiration of the beauty of the olive, palm, 
and fig-trees which crown the summits. 

Before five we arrived at this place, the name 
of which is consecrated in the feelings of those 
to whom the memory of genius is dear, by the 
recollection of that most distinguished of ancient 
orators, the great and virtuous Cicero. 

The hotel at which we stopped is said to have 
been his residence, and it required but a trifling 
effort of imagination as we walked along the 
garden, full of orange and lemon-trees, with their 
golden fruit, and dark green leaves, to conjure 
up the shade of the eloquent and philosophic 
Roman, and to give life to the ancient busts and 
statues which decorated the avenues and ter- 
races. Two old gardeners were seated at the end 
of the walk, watching the curling waves making 
towards the shore. They showed us some olives 
just gathered ; a good quality, but few. Most of 
the fruit is sent to Rome. 

February 15. Hotel de la Vitte de Rome. 
Naples. At six o'clock we left Mola di Gaetd. 

NAPLES. 131 

The hedges were formed of a continued row of 
rich green and fragrant shrubs, but the speed of 
the postillions precluded all chance of botanizing. 
We passed over a handsome new suspension 
bridge, across the river Garigliano, anciently the 
Liris. An excellent road, with groves of trees, 
rich plains, sublime mountains, marble-quarries, 
ruins of amphitheatres, and lofty aqueducts in 
turn struck our attention, but again the number 
of the blind, maimed, and other wretched objects 
craving charity, distressed and harrowed our 
feelings. At half -past three we thankfully arrived 
at this city, and immediately proceeded to the 

apartments secured for us by Baron J. de R . 

Like Rome, the city was inundated with visitors. 
Every room at the Vittoria and Crucelle was 
occupied, and the apartments which had been 
engaged for us were the best which could be 

Saturday, February 16. Naples. We walked 
together in the Villa Reale. The promenade is 
well attended from four till half -past five ; the 
salubrity of the air, with the refreshing shade of 
the trees, and the beauty of the bay, affording 
an attraction in no slight degree heightened by 
the grandeur of Vesuvius and Capri. 

Sunday, February 17. Naples. Mr. M , 

the agent of Messrs, de R , having engaged for 

K 2 


us a very convenient open carriage, and a valet de 
place, we accompanied him and family to Mount 
St. Elmo, and to St. Martin, at the Chartreuse 
monastery, but our attempt to enter was made 
in vain ; the reply to the application being, that 

no females could be admitted. M said, that 

as strangers we desired, out of curiosity, to see 
the church, having heard much of its riches 
in agate, lapis-lazuli, pictures, &c. The man 
answered, that if we would give him a thousand 
pounds to allow us to advance one pace, he dare 

not. Mr. G and his son entered, and M 

remained with the ladies. They soon returned, 
extolling the magnificence of the place of 
sanctity, which not to have seen, when on the 
spot, would have been to them a source of regret. 
While waiting for them we paused an instant to 
look about us, but the guard called out, directing 
us to walk on, intimating that it was not per- 
mitted to stop, fearing perhaps that we were 
enemies, and scientific enough to take a sketch 
of the fortress. 

Monday, February 18. Naples. Wrote letters, 
and afterwards accompanied our friends to the 
principal magazine for coral and lava ornaments, 
of which I made a few purchases. The Queen- 
mother, the King and Queen, and others of 
the royal family were driving on the Chiaja in 

NAPLES. 133 

open carriages. They bowed very graciously to 
every one in passing. Several gentlemen were 
on horseback, but only one lady. Part of the 
Villa Reale has been taken in to form a safer 
ride than that afforded by the lava pave, on 
which horses, when riden or driven fast, are often 
known to slip. We went to see the pictures of 
a Saxon artist, residing here, and whose painting 
of the interior of the royal chapel at Palermo 
struck us as a noble specimen of art. 

Tuesday, February 19. Naples. Went with 

some friends to the Museum. Mr. A met us 

at the door, and we proceeded to view the curio- 
sities found at Pompeii and Herculaneum. The 
paintings still retain their brilliancy of colouring 
after having been exposed to the darkening influ- 
ence of two thousand years. Equally fitted to 
excite astonishment and admiration were the 
manuscripts. The utmost ingenuity, with much 
learning, is employed in unfolding them, and 
supplying the lost characters, which in the copies 
and printed books are marked with red ink. 
Among the other objects soliciting our attention 
was the beautiful agate dish, the figures on which 
represent an old man holding a cornucopia in his 
hand, and surrounded by his family. On the 
reverse is a finely-carved head of Medusa. This 
splendid cameo was found at the baths of Adrian 


at Rome. The museum closing at two, we 
repaired to an excellent cafe, and after the feast 
of the mind gladly partook of chocolate and 
cakes. A drive round the bay finished the 
morning's amusement. 

Wednesday, February 20. Naples. We re- 
ceived an invitation from the Duke of Saraca- 
priolo, president of the Royal Academy of Music. 
The first concert to-morrow evening. It is ex- 
pected to be well attended. The climate and 
environs render Naples a charming residence, as 
far as a place can be made so by the rich gifts of 
nature ; but, alas ! where " all but the spirit of 
man is divine," every other beauty, or excellence, 
loses more than half its value. 

Thursday, February 21. Naples. We took a 
drive this morning, and stopped to make a few 

purchases. Mr. A , who was on horseback, 

came round to speak, and as the space between 
the carriage and the shop was not very wide, the 
horse backed up against the wall, affixed to 
which was a glass show-frame. Down it fell on 

Mr. A 's shoulders, and partly on the animal. 

The rider managed him extremely well, but the 
owner rushed out of the shop to claim remunera- 
tion for the glass broken, and the misplacing of the 
objects it contained. A crowd soon collected, and 
M desired our servant to hold the reins of 

NAPLES. 135 

the still rather restive horse, while Mr. A 

dismounted, with no other damage than atom 
coat, and his pocket relieved of a few ducats. 
My uneasiness at this occurrence was increased 

by being partly the cause of it. M called at 

the Belle Vue on our return to inquire after him, 
but found him out. Mademoiselle S accom- 
panied us to the Academy of Music at St. Carlo. 
The concert was attended by the King and Queen, 
the Duchess of Salerno and daughter, the Princes 
of Salerno and Syracuse, the King's uncle and 
brother, the foreign ambassadors, and others of 
the court, besides most of the foreigners of dis- 
tinction at Naples. The salon, &c., was most 
brilliantly lighted with large and innumerable 
wax candles in chandeliers, and which were 
rendered still more dazzling by the looking- 
glasses that covered the walls of the room. Ices, 
&c., were handed round between the acts. The 
Queen, who is only nineteen years old, is exceed- 
ingly agreeable in person and manners, convers- 
ing in turn with those composing her circle, as 
also did the King and others of the royal family. 
Madame Ronzi de Begnis is the prima donna. 

Friday, February 22. Naples. As the Locanda 
della Villa di Roma was not considered the most 
healthy situation, and we found ourselves not 
altogether unaffected by it, we yesterday engaged 


apartments at La Vittoria, commanding a full 
view of the Villa Reale, the bay, and the hills. 
We should gladly have remained at our former 
hotel, had the air been as good as the rooms, and 
the attention of the people. La Yittoria is quite 
full, and our apartments became vacant only 
within the last day. My maid informs me that 
more that fifty servants belonging to the visitors 
sit down to table, the master of the house pre- 
siding. The Prince Royal of Bavaria is here. 

Saturday, February 23. Naples. Being ex- 
tremely pleased with the prospect from our 
windows, we remained at home all the forenoon 
to enjoy it. Every royal carriage that passes is 
saluted by the sound of the bugje, and presenting 
of arms by the guards stationed at the gate of 
the gardens. Mr. A. G and Mr. M 

called upon us, and brought the information that 
Lord Glenelg has resigned his situation of colonial 

minister. We dined at Mr. G 's, and a most 

lovely moonlight night shed all its beauty upon 
us in our short walk back to the hotel. 

Sunday, February 24. Naples. Mr. M 

having kindly procured orders for us to see the 
palaces, Mr. G and family accompanied us to 
Portici, about four miles distant. The palace, 
gardens, wild animals, and other objects of curi- 
osity well repaid our trouble. The agate banis- 

NAPLES. 137 

ters are extremely handsome, and a room filled 
with china in various devices of flowers, animals, 
musical instruments, and arabesques, usually 
excites especial admiration. Another apart- 
ment is covered with portraits of the Buonaparte 
family, among which is that of Napoleon, 
crowned and in his robes, by Gerard, a work of 
great merit. The garden is pretty, and the 
gardeners are not sparing of their bouquets. 

Monday, February 25. Naples. The day was 
dull, cold, and wet ; we, however, availed our- 
selves of a cessation of rain to take an airing for 
a couple of hours, during which we made 
another, and probably a last visit to the Grotto 
of Pausilippo, which appeared lighted with a 
greater number of lamps than formerly. Many 
carriages, carts, donkeys, and foot-passengers 
were passing to and fro, the traffic between 
Naples and Pozzuoli affording great occupation 
to the industrious classes. We observed many 
cottages in an improved state, and the country 
people are generally rather more neat in appear- 
ance than the lazzaroni of the city of Naples. 
We had fixed this day for an excursion up 
Vesuvius, but fortunately the portentous lower- 
ing of yesterday's setting sun induced us to 
postpone the project. 

Tuesday, February 26. Naples. La Vittoria. 


An English physican, at present attending Miss 

G , and who has resided in the town thirty 

years, observed to us this morning, that he 
thinks, within the last four years the climate of 
Naples has undergone a material change, the cold 
winds being more prevalent, and alterations of 
the atmosphere more frequent than formerly. 
We visited to-day a manufactory of porcelain, 
where we saw many specimens of medallions 
and Etruscan vases, and copies of figures from 
Pompeii. I made several purchases. Dur- 
ing a delightful ride up Mount Pausilippo we 
passed various villas, and the school of Virgil ; 
while the beautiful bay, with the islands of Ischia 
and Capri, the towns of Baija, Portici, &c., pre- 
sented the noblest scenery, rendered still more 
beautiful by the vineyards, hanging shrubs, and 
almond-trees breaking forth with the brightening 
hues of spring. On descending to the Chiaja we 
met several of the royal carriages, and as we 
approached the hotel saw a troop of horse lining 
the walls of the Larga Reale, drawn up in 
expectation of the arrival of his Majesty the 
King of Bavaria. About two hours after, the 
beat of drums and sound of trumpets announced 
the approach of the royal cortege, and several 
carriages and four drove into the court-yard of 
this hotel, where the royal party were expected. 

NAPLES. 139 

The Prince Royal of Bavaria yesterday morning 
set out for Psestum. 

Wednesday, February 27. Naples. The fast of 
Esther. This era always brings with it melan- 
choly reflections the death of my father can 
never be remembered without sorrow, but it is 
wrong and selfish, because the hope that the 
Almighty has granted my dear parents a happy 
futurity, one free from pain and full of bliss, 
ought to reconcile one to the privation. We 

called for Miss G , and drove to the port to 

see the two Sicilian steam -boats lying in the 
harbour; but they are both extremely small 
vessels, and on board of which we should not 
have courage to take our passage for Malta. 
They touch at Messina and Palermo, making it a 
six days' and six nights' voyage. We afterwards 
went through Portici to visit the ruins of Hercu- 
laneum. Many discoveries have been effected 
since our former visit, several streets being now 
uncovered ; houses, painted walls, mosaic floor- 
ings, Corinthian columns, baths, and what is 
more observable, a prison with the ancient 
gratings and two flights of narrow stone stairs, 
the lower one leading to a dungeon. The paved 
narrow streets and footpaths on both sides are in 
good order. 

Thursday, February 28. Naples. La Vittoria. 


During the night we were surprised by a noise 
in the adjoining chamber, which we appropriated 

for our luggage. M arose, and on opening 

the door a strange man made his appearance. 
This was somewhat startling, but on inquiring 
his business there he replied that he was a 
servant belonging to the house ; and as all the 
beds were occupied with strangers, he thought, 
as there was one at liberty in that room, he 
might take advantage of it for the night. He 
apologized for the alarm he had created. Mr. 
G called to invite us to dinner next Satur- 
day. We accompanied him in a drive past 
Albergo dei Roviri, the Strada Nuova, the beauti- 
ful wide road made by Murat, but the coldness 
of the wind induced us to return to the Chiaja. 
We met several carriages and four, those of Lord 
Craven, the Duke of Buccleuch, and royal family 
of Naples. The King of Bavaria is said to 
possess very superior abilities as a poet, and to 
be a great patron of learning and the fine arts. 
The Ferdinand the Second arrived this morning. 
She is stated to be a large vessel, but the weather 
prevented our going on board, as we intended, to 
see her equipments. 

Friday, March 1. Naples. Commenced writ- 
ing to Mrs. L. R , but was prevented finish- 
ing the letter. Went to see several churches. 

NAPLES. 141 

The cathedral is being repaired, and the hand- 
some marble columns repolished, but we post- 
poned seeing the chapel of St. Januarius till Miss 

G could be of our party. The church of 

Marie de la Peite' has three beautiful statues, 
worthy the attention of strangers, from the 
exquisite manner in which they are executed. 
That of a veiled female, representing Modesty, is 
the finest piece of sculpture I ever beheld. The 
veil is so transparent that all the features are 
discernible through it, the whole being of one 
piece of marble. Opposite to this is the figure of 
a man covered with a net, which is being lifted 
up by a cherub, emblematical of Vice discovered. 
The third is a dead Christ, enveloped in a thin 
covering. We passed through the old city, the 
streets of which are extremely narrow, but con- 
taining very good shops. It was in the old 
market-place that Masaniello was murdered. We 
purchased some flowers in Strada Toledo, and 
after driving to the Strada Nuova and the Chiaja, 
returned home. Armstrong went on board the 
Ferdinando Secondo. He says it is an excellent 
vessel, and if we could obtain her for our passage 
to Malta we could not desire a better. It rests 
with the King to grant permission. 

Saturday, March 2. Naples. Hotel de la 
Victoire. Walked for some time in the 


Reale, where we were joined by Mr. G 's 

family, who took chocolate with us at our hotel. 
We afterwards continued our walk till four 

o'clock, and dined at Mr. G 's. Stories, 

charades, &c., in Italian, French, and English 
occupied the hour of social leisure. 

Sunday, March 3. Naples. We took a turn 
in the gardens, where a great many prom enaders 
were assembled, and at one left for the Campo 
Marzo. Vehicles of every kind were proceeding 
to the race-course, on the fine paved road whence 
may be seen the Bay and Vesuvius. A gradual 
ascent leads to the Campo Marzo, an extensive 
green for the exercise of troops, surrounded by 
magnificent scenery. The assemblage of carriages 
was already so numerous as to oblige us to take 
the third line. We had, however, a very good 
sight of the building, at the head of which was 
a booth appropriated for the royal family, who 
were attended by a full court. About three o'clock 
the amusements commenced, and the novelty of 
female horse-racing, and the skill of charioteers, 
in imitation of the ancient games, were highly 
diverting. The lady equestrians were dressed in 
black hats with plumes of white feathers, scarlet 
spencers and white long skirts, others in splendid 
Amazonian style. Some of the jockeys managed 
seven hoises each- 

NAPLES. 143 

Monday, March 4. Naples. A beautiful day ! 
We visited St. Chiaro, where the kings of Naples 
are buried. Robert of Anjou lies interred there. 
The chapel adjoining belongs to the convent for 
noble ladies, some of whom we saw through the 
gratings at their devotions. We then went again 
to view the statues at St. Severus, then to St. 
Apostoli, and St. Annunciata ; afterwards to la 
Strada Toledo, to take chocolate, and lastly to la 
Strada Nuova, and to the summit of Mount Pausi- 
lippo. The view of the Bay seemed more lovely 
than ever ; the immense space of blue waters, 
white stone buildings, and majestic mountains, 
islands, villas, and gardens forming a magnificent 

Such was the feeling as we viewed again and 
again this delicious scene, that we could readily 
have exclaimed with the poet 

This region, surely is not of the earth. 
Was it not dropt from heaven 1 Not a grove, 
Citron, or pine, or cedar ; not a grot, 
Sea-worn and mantled with the gadding vine, 
But breathes enchantment. Not a cliff but flings 
On the clear blue wave some image of delight, 
Some cabin roof glowing with crimson flowers, 
Some ruined temple or fallen monument. 

We have heard this evening that the govern- 
ment steam-boat leaves this port on Monday or 
Tuesday next for Palermo and Malta. She is a 
vessel of one hundred and sixty horse power. We 
hope, please God, to go with her. 


Tuesday ', March 5 . Naples. Hotel de laVictoire. 
Went on board II Ferdinando Secondo, an ex- 
cellent steamer belonging to the Sicilian govern- 
ment, one hundred and sixty horse power, and 
one hundred and twenty feet long. We could 
gain no information respecting her departure for 
Malta or Sicily, but she is a vessel well calculated 
for the excursion. We afterwards went to la Fa- 
brica di Bragio Justioriani e figli, where we pur- 
chased several articles for our garden at East Cliff, 
in Porcella e terraglia. We then drove up and 
down the Chiaja and Strada Nuova, and passed 

an hour at la Belle Vue with Mr. G and his 

family, who expressed themselves as not much 
fatigued after their excursion to Mount Vesuvius. 

Wednesday, March 6. Mademoiselle S 

called at twelve, and accompanied us to the 
Grotto Pausilippo Pozzuoli, and to see the re- 
mains of a temple dedicated to Jupiter Serapis, 
which is well worth visiting. Many of the colos- 
sal columns are in fragments, but others remain 
entire ; chapels where the priests performed their 
sacrifices, and addressed the people, are very in- 
teresting remains of pagan worship. The sea has 
made great inroads about this spot, and worms 
have eaten away the marble. In many places the 
sulphur-baths are yet used in cases of rheumatism, 
and they have been found efficacious in diseases 

NAPLES. 145 

of the eye. We could trace along the road a line 
of lava from the ancient crater of Sulferterra. 
The different villas and objects in the bay ren- 
der this a most pleasing excursion. 

Thursday, March 7. Naples. Mr. G and 

his family accompanied us to see Virgil's tomb. 
There were several other parties going up to visit 
the spot where the great poet is said to have been 
interred. A small dome, supported by arches, is 
pointed out as the remains of the mausoleum, 
and a marble tablet with a Latin inscription on 
the outside, a copy of one now in the museum. 
We obtained some cuttings of the fig and vine 
from the garden, as a substitute for a branch of 
laurel from the classic spot. The laurel, alas ! is 
no more : the ravages of time and strangers have 
not suffered a vestige to remain ! We continued 

riding till four o'clock, and met Mr. A , who 

had very kindly troubled himself in looking out 
for a Florentine mosaic table. He had found 
one which he thought might suit, and wished me 
to accompany him to look at it. As it was but a 
small one I purchased three others also, which I 
consider handsome. 

Friday, March 8. Naples. E. G accom- 
panied us to Strada Nuova, and passing the beau- 
tiful palace of Anqri, we enquired of our valet-de- 
place, Charles, if admission to see it could be 



obtained. He gravely shook his head, saying it 

was requisite to have an order. M thought 

a piastre would have the effect, and Charles soon 
returned with the custode, who led the way up a 
broad, gradual ascent, bordered on each side by 
flowers and busts, and winding round till we 
reached the house, which commands a most de- 
lightful view of the bay, Vesuvius, the interest- 
ing isles and towns, with hills whose vegetation 
is now breaking forth with all the beauty of 
spring. The interior of this tasteful dwelling 
excited equal admiration by the beauty of its 
architecture, the magnificence of its furniture, 
interspersed with various decorations of art, and 
affording all the enticements of luxury and com- 
fort which may be looked for in a modern 
palace. We felt, however, the deficiency of car- 
pets, which, though they might have hidden the 
beautiful diversified floorings, would have pro- 
tected us from taking cold, of which I now feel 
the effects. A billiard table engaged our particular 
notice. It was of handsome polished wood, richly 
carved, and the lions' heads on the sides were 
made to open their mouths on receiving the ball. 
Saturday, March 9. Naples. The early part 
of this day was chiefly spent in a walk to the 
Villa ReaZe, and the evening was passed at Mr. 
G 's, where we pleasantly amused ourselves, 

NAPLES. 147 

and taxed our ingenuity to the utmost in untying 
the knotty points of some charades, both French 
and English. 

Sunday, March 10. Naples. The races on 
the Campo Marzo were to have been resumed to- 
day, but the inauspicious state of the weather (it 
being dull after the wind and rain which prevailed 
during the night) impeded those amusements. 
The King was again driving the Queen in a phae- 
ton and pair. It is extremely gratifying to observe 
the amiable attention of these young sovereigns 
towards each other ; the King being twenty-nine, 
the Queen nineteen years old. Their manner is 
gracious and condescending. I entered the read- 
ing-room with M to see a painting of Vesu- 
vius. This establishment is only accessible to the 
English who subscribe for the English journals 
and various publications which are prohibited to 
others. We find II Ferdinando Secondo is ap- 
pointed for Thursday next to convey his Bavarian 
majesty to Palermo, and will not touch at Malta ; 
all hope, therefore, of our having the advantage of 
this commodious vessel is vanished. 

Monday, March 11. Naples. I have a se- 
vere cold, caught on Friday last at the palace of 
Angri, from the stone floors. Well, we must pay 

for curiosity and pleasure ! M wishes me 

to consult Mr. B , though I feel that with a 

L 2 


little more care I shall not need medical advice. 
As it was a fine mild day I judged an airing 

would be beneficial. Mr. G and his two 

eldest daughters rode with us till four o'clock. 

"We then called for Mdlle. S , who returned 

with us to dinner, but I could not remain at table, 

finding myself still more indisposed. M 

expected the doctor all the evening, and we 
waited for him till ten, thinking he might have 
expected a soiree. We afterwards understood, 
that his having had a more than ordinary 
number of patients to visit, and thinking our 
invitation merely for tea, was the reason of his 
disappointing us. I passed a very disturbed night. 

Tuesday, March 12. Miss de E rode with 

us for two hours to the Strada Nuova. She is 
full of intelligence, and is remarkably agreeable. 
A Princess Centola, a Neapolitan, is often seen on 
the drive. She is one of the handsomest ladies 
here, and appears very young, though the mother 
of ten children. She is the wife of Prince Angeli 
Doreci's brother. The two brothers are not on 
friendly terms, some dispute existing in a law- 
suit respecting the estate left by the late prince 
their father, who died a few months since of the 

Wednesday, March 13. Our time passes here 
rather monotonously ; calling on invalids, taking 

NAPLES. 149 

a walk or a drive, being our chief occupation. 
Our friends at the Crucetta were in a more favour- 
able state to-day. The King of Bavaria and suite 
depart to-morrow morning for Palermo. His son 
has just taken possession of the apartments 
which the Duke of Oldenburg quitted yesterday 

The steam-boat conveyance increases the num- 
ber of travellers to this city. It is surprising that 
so many distressed objects should still exist. 

Thursday, March 14. We visited Herculaneum 
to-day, the fineness of the weather precluding fear 
of damp, a danger ordinarily encountered in such 
subterraneous visits. I was well pleased in this 
my second research among the ancient ruins and 
streets. The guide at our request gave us a piece 
of the painted rouge wall, as a great favour. We 
stored up a few pieces of mosaic from the flooring, 
and intend drying a little bouquet from the gar- 
den as mementos of Herculaneum. The theatre is 
larger than that of S. Carlo, the two inscriptions 
in marble of the consuls Balbi, at each end of 
the corridor, being still as distinct as if only 
newly sculptured. 

The statues found in the edifice are at the 
Museum ; and it was formerly, we are told, 
covered in its whole extent with marble. Its 
vast dimensions testify the immensity of the city. 


Friday, March 15. Paid our usual visits, and 
found the invalids improving. A windy day, but I 

took a drive with M to purchase flowers and 

perfumery, and change some mosaic for lava or- 

ments. Mr. A the Italian master, passed 

the evening with us ; we found him an entertain- 
ing, gentlemanly person he related many anec- 
dotes of great personages and others. We have 
not yet been to S. Carlo, our visits having been 
chiefly to the sick and the bereaved. Strange to 
say, very seldom is one's attention engaged by 
the sound of music here. Italy, where harmony 
and sweet sounds once prevailed, now leaves to 
colder realms the cultivation of that science 
which calms and soothes the ruder passions of 
human nature. May it only be neglected for a 
time, not discarded for ever ! I am told that it 
is seldom introduced in parties of the present day. 
We were informed, among other curious little 
matters, that all the brothers and sisters of a pope 
are allowed the title of princes and princesses. 

Saturday , March 16. Naples. Our friends, the 

Misses G having called for us to take a walk, 

we went to the Chiaja gardens, and thence to // 
largo Spirito Santo, but the church was closed. 
There is a noble colonnade with shops, newly 
erected. We passed the handsome fountain of 
Medina, which always has a refreshing supply of 

NAPLES. 151 

waters. We then ascended the height of Pezzo- 
falcone, and returned by the steps to the passage 
leading to Strada Chiaja. The flowers at the 
Villa Reale are embellishing the different clumps 
and fountains, and budding forth in various 
forms and hues, with all the beauties of spring, 
while the birds, chanting their hopeful song, 
seem to fancy's ear emulous of the praise ever 
due to nature's music. 

I heard, the other day, of a melancholy suicide 
committed by one of the first singers here. A 

Mr. N , a native of Paris, who from not 

meeting with his wonted applause in a single air, 
felt the disappointment and chagrin so bitterly, 
that he put an end to his life by throwing him- 
self out of the window. 

Sunday, March 17. At eight o'clock M 

went to the Belle Vue, to bid farewell to Mr. G 

and his family, and found him in time to see 
them off, and to offer them our best wishes. The 
Grand Duke Charles of Austria's arrival here 
to-day made it difficult to obtain post-horses for 
both carriages, but at last they succeeded. Our 
intention of going to visit Pompeii to-day was 
frustrated by a gale of wind, which would have 
rendered that excursion almost insufferable from 
the dust. We congratulated ourselves on not 
being at sea this weather. May the Almighty 


still deign to protect us in the same merciful 
manner as hitherto ! Let us, O Lord, throughout 
life, exert ourselves to cherish unceasingly a sense 
of thy Divine goodness, that we may never fail 
to experience thy protecting power ! 

Monday, March 18. It being our intention, 
with the blessing of the Almighty, to depart for 
Rome on Wednesday next, we proceeded to the 
poste aux chevaux, to deliver the order for horses, 
that we might not be disappointed at this busy 
season. We then went to the post-office for our 
newspapers, where the throng of persons was im- 
mense. The office closes from eleven till three 
o'clock. We found a close carriage more desir- 
able than an open one. Puncenelli, improvvisatori, 
and eatable stalls, obtained as crowded an audi- 
ence and attendance on the Molo as when the 
sun is shining and the streets are dry. All seemed 
contented, except the wretched mendicants, and 
the poor over-driven horses and donkeys, which, 
when harnessed beside the ox, seemed ready to 
sink beneath their burdens. 

I this morning heard some anecdotes of Car- 
dinal Mezzofante, who speaks fifty-eight different 
languages and dialects, all with the greatest pro- 
priety of pronunciation, as well as grammatical 
accuracy. He was formerly librarian of the Vati- 
can, and was made cardinal as an honour due to 

NAPLES. 153 

his astonishing talent. It is said, that on his 
obtaining the promotion, the Council of Cardinals 
resembled that of Babel, and that he, Mezzofante, 
was chosen their interpreter. 

Tuesday, March 19. This being the fete of St. 
Joseph, all the shops were closed even more 
strictly than on Sunday, and the people were 
generally well dressed. I understand that alms 
are given on this day to the poor, and that many 
families receive presents of new suits of clothes, 
to the funds for which their Majesties contribute 

largely. We took leave of the Baroness de R , 

and saw the Baron for a few minutes. He was 
very pale and thin, which was not surprising, 
after a fortnight's confinement to his bed and 
severe remedies. I trust we shall soon hear of his 
recovery. It is nearly five weeks since we com- 
menced our sojourn at Naples! What a dream is 
life ! We came with the expectation of meeting an 
excellent conveyance for Malta, and with the hope 
of passing the ensuing holidays there, or still 
further east, but no opportunity presenting itself 
we must return to Rome. May it prove for the 
best! May the Almighty direct our steps! 

Wednesday, March 20. Hotel Cicerone. Mola 
di Gaeta. At eight o'clock we left the Victoria 
and having stopped at the Crucella, we had the 
pleasure to find that the Baron had passed a good 


night and was better. We proceeded through 
the crowded streets of Naples, and were accosted 
by the poor flower-vendors, who cheerfully 
wished us buon viaggio, as did many others in 
passing. The rain that had fallen in the night 
laid the dust, and we found the air pure, but the 
roads heavy. Many post-horses had already set 
off, and we met several on the return. The Cam- 
pagna was perceptibly improved since the pre- 
ceding month, the fruit-trees being now in blos- 
som and vegetation in great progress, while the 
fields were enlivened by numerous labourers and 
flocks and herds. We had an extra pair of horses 
at St. Agatha, and also on entering the town. 
We reached this hotel at thirty-six minutes past 
five. The sun set majestically, veiling the neigh- 
bouring mountains in the most luxuriant colours, 
and forming round the beautiful gulf a splendid 
picture ; but the town generally has a desolate 
and uncomfortable appearance. 

Thursday, March 21. Velletri. We were grati- 
fied with the sight of sun-rise at half -past five 
this morning. How majestic and still was the 
morning dawn, as the pale yellow deepened into 
glittering gold ! We were ready at six, the hour 
fixed for setting off, and heard the approach of 
post-horses, but they were for a family from the 
other hotel. How vexed was M , who is 


always exact to time, to find others beforehand. 
Another and another carriage passed. The post- 
master was questioned, and replied that the fault 
did not rest with him, for that they who order 
their horses first are always first served. It was 
as well to be cool on the matter, though we had 
hoped to have reached Albano this evening. At 
length the horses were announced, and we de- 
scended, but found suchfatiguedstrips of animals, 
with two boys, not regular postillions, that 

M would not set off with them. Another 

hour elapsed, when the sound of the whip 
announced a regular relay from Atri, and at a 
quarter before eight, with a fresh supply of 
patience, the old stock being exhausted, we were 
again en route. How serene the Campagnafelice! 
Birds were singing, numberless blossoms per- 
fuming the air, and the soil promising a rich har- 
vest, both for the needy and the luxurious. Where 
is the heart that feels not grateful for the bounty 
of the Deity ? We met numbers of droves of 
horses, buffaloes, oxen, and sheep to-day. The 
Pontine Marshes seem to be better drained and 
cultivated than heretofore. Many parts are being 
enclosed. We arrived at Velletri six minutes after 
eight o'clock. 

Friday, March 22. A little past six this morning 
we were en route for the Eternal City, setting off 


from Velletri with six horses, it being rather a 
rough stage to Genzano. The country people 
here and at Albano are good-looking and cleanly, 
and their costume, a scarlet jacket and neat head- 
dress, is extremely becoming. Indeed they seem 
better clothed than any of the peasantry I have 
hitherto noticed in Italy. We observed whole 
families, consisting of young and grown up chil- 
dren, fathers and mothers, some on donkeys or 
mules, others on foot, repairing with their imple- 
ments of agriculture to their daily labour in the 
fields. It was a pleasant sight, because they all 
appeared cheerful and happy, none of them ex- 
hibiting that harassed and fatigued aspect which 
we have too often observed elsewhere. 

We arrived at the Posta at half -past eleven 
o'clock. There was a letter for us at the gate 

from Mr. S , purporting that he had engaged 

apartments for us at Via Fontenella di Borghese, 
54, of which we took possession. They are com- 
modious, but not the most cheerful, having but a 
side-view into the Corso. Considering, however, 
that all the hotels and other apartments are en- 
gaged for the holy week, we may think ourselves 
well off. We walked in the Piaza di Spagna, 
engaged a valet-de-place, &c. 

Saturday, March 23. Rome. M went to 

synagogue, where he saw Dr. L. Loewe, who had 

ROME. 157 

returned from the Holy Land, Egypt, and Greece. 
We walked to the Corso, to the Monte Pincione, 
and to the Forum, and also visited various 
churches and monuments, not returning till three 
o'clock. We read till dinner-time, when some 
gentlemen paid us visits ; they conversed on the 
state of the community, and the disadvantages 
under which they laboured, though their situa- 
tion, under the present pope, is somewhat ame- 
liorated, his holiness being more favourably in- 
clined towards the Israelites than former apostolic 
potentates. They have schools for various 
branches of education, but those who follow pro- 
fessions cannot practise out of the Ghetto ; such 
is generally the existing illiberality in this cele- 
brated city. Two or three who are skilled in medi- 
cine and surgery are visited in that situation by 
Roman Catholics for the ad vantage of their advice. 
Sunday, March 24. Rome. This morning we 
had the gratification of witnessing the imposing 
ceremony of the Pope's blessing the palms. We 
arrived at St. Peter's church at nine o'clock. 
It seemed as if all the world were assembled to 
behold the scene. Among the concourse of spec- 
tators were innumerable English of distinction, 
as well as foreigners from all parts of Europe. 

M wore his uniform, and graced the dress 

as well as any of the numerous military officers 


present. The church was hung with rich tapestry 
for the fete, but I greatly preferred the mosaic 
pictures and beautiful monuments and statues. 
We took our places according to our tickets, the 
ladies separate from the gentlemen. At this 
early hour I found most of the seats engaged, 
and but for the polite interference of a Mons. 

B I probably should not have obtained one. 

The numerous clergy, of various degrees of rank, 
the sumptuousness of their habiliments, the im 
posing sounds of various musical instruments, 
aided by vocal harmony, had a most thrilling 
effect, even on those of a different belief. The 
procession of his holiness, followed by the car- 
dinals and foreigners of rank, all attired in costly 
costume, rich clothes, point-lace, gold and silver 
embroidery, and uniforms of different nations and 
regiments, commanded general admiration. The 
pope having taken his seat, each gentleman, 
according to his rank and station, knelt in rota- 
tion, and presented his palm-branch to receive 
the benediction of his holiness. High mass was 
then performed the pope advancing to the 
baldachin was anointed by his cardinals. About 
one the grand procession departed in the same 
state as at the commencement. We lunched at 
Caft Nuovo. 
Monday, March 25. Rome. We breakfasted at 

EOME. 159 

Cafe, Nuovo, and took some cold refreshment with 
us, for a visit to Grotta Ferrata, distant about ten 
miles, and where there was an annual fair of 
wearing apparel, crockery, bijouterie, and all the 
usual appurtenances of such resorts. 

It was most numerously attended, as well by 
country folks as foreigners of all nations. The 
females were fat and well-favoured, and graced 
the equestrian attitude in which many of them 
attended the rural fete. Their dark tresses, 
plaited under a scarlet or white head-dress, looked 
extremely becoming, and most were decorated 
with gold ear-rings, and rings on their ringers, 
and smartly embroidered muslin aprons. We 
entered one of the shows, where rope-dancing 
and feats of strength were exhibited. 

The church of S. Maria, belonging to the 
Greeks, was thronged, and we heard as much 
English spoken as Italian. It possesses some 
good frescos by Domenichino, the one of St. Bar- 
thelemy recovering a child from convulsions, by 
putting a drop of consecrated oil into its mouth ; 
another, that of King Otho III. going to meet St. 
Nil, who receives him at the head of his commu- 
nity, merited especial notice. We afterwards 
proceeded two miles beyond to see Frascati, 
which is beautifully situated and considered ex- 
ceedingly healthy, a supposition continued by the 


ruddy complexions of the inhabitants. The an- 
cient Tusculum is situated on the brow of the hill, 
about a mile distant. Several parties were going 
to this spot, rendered so famous by Cato, Cicero, 
&c. Our compatriots appeared to enjoy the rural 
treat, many of the gentlemen partaking of the hot 
fried fish from the pan, without regard to their 
new kid gloves ; neither bread nor fork being to be 
had. At six we returned home, covered with 
dust, although well pleased with the morning's 
amusement. We saw Don Miguel, ex-king of 
Portugal, at Frascati ; he bowed to every one as 
he passed on horseback. 

Tuesday, March 26. Rome. It was a rainy 
day, we had therefore a close carriage for the 
day's excursion, and were accompanied by Dr. 

Loewe, who brought M some notes for our 

intended Eastern tour. We crossed the Tiber over 
the bridge Molle, constructed in the seventh cen- 
tury by M. Emilius Scaurus, celebrated by the bat- 
tle of Constantine against his rival Maxentius, and 
several other remarkable events. It is partly an- 
cient and partly modern. A little beyond, on a hill, 
is a small temple erected in honour of St. Andrew, 
by Pope Pius II., in memory of the discovery of 
the head of that apostle, after it had been trans- 
ported from Peloponnesus to Rome. We also 
stopped at the church built in honour of the same 

ROME. 161 

saint by Julius III., as a memorial of his deliver- 
ance from the hands of the Germans on St. An- 
drew's day. Vignole was the architect. A little 
further on is a palace erected by the same pope, 
and also by the architect Vignole. There are here 
a handsome fountain and some fine frescoes by 
Thadee Zuccare. We then drove to the Villa 
Borghese to see the handsome Propylse, and after- 
wards to the church of S. Maria del Popolo, by Vig- 
nole, from the designs of Michael Angelo. There is 
a chapel, the cupola of which is in mosaic, from 
the cartoons of Raphael, and in the Chigi chapel, 
called Notre Dame di Loretto, are four statues of 
which Jonah and the Whale, from the designs of 
Raphael, is particularly admirable. 

Wednesday, March 27. Home. Mons. B 

politely sent us a written account of the clerical 

observances of the week, and Mr. J sent 

tickets of admission. 

We to-day visited the church of Santa Maria 
Maggiore, on the Esqueline hill, a magnificent 
edifice ; its columns and baldachin are superb ; 
we then proceeded to that of 8. Pietro in Vinculis, 
remarkable for its statue of Moses, by Michael 
Angelo, which decorates the tomb of Pope Julius 
II., and for its twenty Doric columns of Parian 
marble ; and then to St. Martin's. We afterwards 
proceeded to the Ghetto, and having taken an 


early dinner, we went to the Sixtine chapel, 
to witness the ceremony of the Miserere. A great 
number of carriages were assembled, and the 
chapel was thronged, most of the seats being 
already engaged, but an ambassador with two 
ladies entering at the same time with our- 
selves, we obtained excellent situations. 

The singing was very fine, and I was well en- 
tertained. M 's uniform made him bolder than 

usual, and we obtained seats close to the screen. 
The Lamentations of Jeremiah were sung, accom- 
panied by different musical instruments. The 
ladies were mostly in evening costume, many 
having their hair well dressed, and a black lace 
veil thrown loosely over the head, black being 
generally worn. The pope was present, also 
about twenty cardinals. 

Thursday, March 28. Rome. The ceremonies 
at St. Peter's to-day have been highly interesting. 
At the early hour of ten we were at the church, 
to witness the pope's benediction of the people. 
His holiness washed the feet of twelve pilgrims, 
each of whom received a new suit of clothes and 
a medal. His holiness then waited on them at 
dinner, assisted by several cardinals, who knelt to 
the pope when handing him the dishes to serve to 
the poor men. These acts of humiliation may be' 
well intended, and doubtless have some good ten- 

HOME. 163 

dency, teaching the individual, however exalted 
in rank, the virtue of a humble spirit, and that 
religion surpasses every other distinction ; but, on 
the other hand, the accompanying pomp and dis- 
play may be regarded as somewhat lessening the 
merit of the action. The table was decorated 
with all the magnificence of regal state ; and the 
pilgrims, after regaling themselves with every 
luxury, were permitted to take away the remains 
of everything that was served to them. The 
splendid hall was crowded with visitors from all 
countries and of the highest rank. The rush was 
so great at one time that the screams of those 
who could only succeed in making half way into 
the hall were truly appalling. 

The evening was passed in witnessing the wash- 
ing of the feet of female pilgrims, by a society of 
ladies of the first quality, who afterwards served 
them at supper. The ladies wear a costume, 
consisting of a scarlet bib and apron, with a 
badge on the right side, indicative of their order. 
M - went to the hospital of male pilgrims, to 
witness a similar ceremony, at which Don Miguel 

Friday, March 29. Rome. Yesterday I re- 
ceived letters from the Baroness James de R , 

and from Emily G , the latter apprising us 

of their safe arrival at Florence, the former from 
M 2 


Naples, expressing a hope that we should not pur- 
sue our projected tour in the East, as it might be 
attended with the greatest danger, owing to the 
warlike intelligence which had lately been re- 
ceived from Egypt, leaving no doubt that hostili- 
ties with the Turks would shortly commence. We 
felt somewhat staggered at this advice from such 
an unquestionable and kind authority ; but how 
difficult is it to lay aside plans once formed, and 
in part commenced ! It is like changing a long- 
cherished opinion. For the sake of novelty, as 
well as to visit an old friend, we this morning 
breakfasted at the Cafe Nuovo. Poor little B 
was no more to be seen there; he was gone to that 
bourne whence no traveller returns ! The room 
was filled with guests, from the priest to the young 
married couple, and the activity of the attendants 
kept pace with the demand for colazione of various 
kinds. Having finished our repast we took an 
hour's amusement in the Corso, and while enjoy- 
ing the exercise of walking, gazed at the various 
shops, the windows of which were attractively 
supplied with abundance of objects to please the 
virtuoso, the votaries of fashion, the literati, or 
the artist. On our return we wrote letters to our 
friends at home, and prepared for the approach of 
Passover ; but how different were the prepara- 
tions to those I have been accustomed to, when 

ROME. 165 

expecting the heart-cheering society of the dear 
and near relatives who usually enliven our circle 
with the delights of friendship, and affectionate 
conviviality, on this occasion ; and when we to- 
gether endeavour to fulfil our sacred duty, and 
observe the holy ordinances enjoined us ! May the 
Almighty permit us a renewal of such happiness 

in future years ! A little before six my dear M 

and I rode to the synagogue. It was beautifully 
decorated with rich crimson damask, as well as 
many extra lamps for the holidays. We walked 
home ; read the Hagada the first time with- 
out other society than ourselves, and which for 
the first time caused any regret, for we could not 
prevent a degree of sadness from intruding itself 
at this memorable epoch, when thinking of the 
absence of those we loved. 

Saturday, March 30. Rome. I walked with 
my dear M - to our place of worship. It was 
crowded, and prayers were attended to in a devout 
and satisfactory manner. One or other of the gen- 
tlemen stood behind my seat the whole of the ser- 
vice, an attention which was persisted in against 
my wish and entreaty. We returned home to 
breakfast, and afterwards went to see six other 
synagogues. They all possess treasures of an- 
cient silver ornaments, of crowns, bells, &c., two 
old sepharim, and the curtains, cloaks, &c., are 


magnificent, embroidered in gold and silver. It 
seems the ambition of every member of the con- 
gregation, as far as means will permit, to present 
an offering in honour of the law of God. The 
eagerness to attend us and to show us respect, 
is beyond description, and certainly beyond our 
desert. During the forenoon we received a visit 

from Lieutenant -Colonel and Mrs. S and 

their niece. They presented us a letter from 
Mr. M , dated as far back as 1827, having re- 
served it on finding us absent from Park-lane, 
when on our first tour to the Holy Land. Dr. 
Loewe dined, and said the Hagada with us, most 
satisfactorily commenting on the same. 

Sunday, March 31. Rome. It being late 
last night before we had completed the Pass- 
over service, Dr. Loewe was shut out of his 
lodgings, and obliged to return and take up his 
night's rest on a sofa in our drawing-room. Mons. 

B called during the time of our prayers, 

we therefore could not receive him. We again 
attended synagogue, and were received in state by 
the deputies, a vast concourse of persons gazing 
at and following us. Soldiers were stationed at 
the entrance and in the interior of the building, 
and presented arms at our approach. We went 
into four other synagogues, all of which were 
splendidly ornamented with tapestry of rich bro- 

ROME. 167 

cade and fringe. At one we attended to hear a 
discourse delivered in Italian, and it was certainly 
of a most impressive character. After breakfast 
walked till half -past one on Monte Pincione. Re- 
ceived an invitation from the Duke Alexander 
Torlonia, to see the Girandola from his beautiful 
little palace in the Strada Tor di Mona, opposite 
il Castello St. Angela. After dinner we pro- 
ceeded to St. Peter's to witness the illumina- 
tion of the church and colonnade. The coup 
(Peril was magnificent, and the celerity with 
which the immense blaze of light appears, sur- 
prises and delights the beholder. Chairs are let 
to the visitors. Of some of these we gladly 
availed ourselves, and were amused till half-past 
eight with the splendid and lively scene. We 
afterwards rode to Monte Pincione, from whence 
the effect was most beautiful. This fete seems to 
give universal satisfaction to Romans as well 
as foreigners. The streets and avenues were 
thronged with people and carriages. I do not 
observe any austerity of countenance or manner 
among the numerous clergy of this apostolical 
city. They appear to partake of the amusements 
with the same delight as the other inhabitants. 
Monday, April 1. Rome. In order to keep 

our engagement with Colonel and Mrs. S , we 

left home at eleven, accompanied by Dr. Loewe, 


and proceeded to the church of St. Ignatius, which 
was beautifully illuminated, and much crowded. 
Here the party found us, and we proceeded to see 
the tomb newly discovered by Signor Campana, 
and his collection of antiquities. This gentleman 
engages a piece of ground for which he pays the 
government, and has now been excavating for ten 
years. Some degree of success has attended his 
labours, for he has discovered the tomb alluded 
to, and which is that of a daughter of Octavius, 
called Octavia. You descend to the subterranean 
vaults, till you arrive at several circular tombs, 
which contain earthenware vases with covers, 
filled with bones of the deceased members of 
the family, and various friends. A marble 
tablet details some particulars of the individual 
interred below. Busts, statues, sarcophagi, and 
columns, lie scattered round. We also visited 
Scipio's tomb, and saw the sarcophagus and some 
alto-relievo figures, supposed to represent Moses 
and the children of Israel in the Wilderness, and 
Jonah and the Whale. We then parted with our 
new acquaintances, and went to the fountain of 
Egeria, where we again obtained a piece of Venus's 
hair, and tasted the water from the spring. 

" Egeria ! 

The mosses of thy fountain still are sprinkled 
With thine Elysian water-drops ; the face 
Of thy cave-guarded spring, with years unwrinkled, 

ROME. 169 

Reflects the meek-eyed genius of the place, 

Whose green, wild margin now no more erase 

Art's works ; nor must the delicate waters sleep, 

Poisoned in marble : bubbling from the vase 

Of the cleft statue, with a gentle leap 

The rill runs o'er, and round fern, flowers, and ivy creep." 

Our morning's excursions were finished by a 
visit to the burial-place of the Israelites, where 
we saw the tombs of poor Edmund Goldsmid and 
Mr. Heine. There are several handsome monu- 
ments and inscriptions, but, strange to say, the 
larger space is planted with vegetables. We 
returned to dinner, and then dressed to go to 
Duke Torlonia's beautiful palace, to see the Giran- 
dola at St. Angelo. Prince Coburg, the Duchess 
of Sutherland, and all the beau monde were there. 

Tuesday, April 2. Home. Went to the Museo 
nelle Sale del Popolo, and then rode on Monte 
Pincione. The evening was passed at Colonel 
's, where we met a party of scientific 
persons of different nations. The piano and sing- 
ing were introduced, and afforded great amuse- 
ment, it being the first private music we had 
heard in this country. Arabesque writing and 
Scarabei with hieroglyphical inscriptions were 
produced and translated by Dr. Loewe, Mr. 
Joseph Bonomi, and a gentleman from Lebanon. 
The time passed most agreeably and rationally. 

Wednesday, April 3. Rome. I went with 


Colonel and Mrs. S , her mother and niece, 

to Signer Barbere's, one of the first mosaic 
manufacturers, and a very accomplished gentle- 
man. There was a beautiful mosaic table that 
could scarcely be known from a painting. The 
Crown Prince of Russia has ordered one, which 
is to be decorated with figures of the most 
interesting monuments of ancient and modern 
Rome. I purchased a piece for thirty scudi for 
a penholder. We then went to Mr. Severne's, 
a British artist, who has just finished a large 
painting for the church of St. Paul, and many 
of whose productions we viewed with much 
delight. In the evening we took a drive round 
the Colosseum, St. John di Laterano, and St. 
Peter's. Great was the contrast presented by 
the last-mentioned edifice when illuminated with 
thousands of lamps and torches, and when the 
sky itself was studded with its resplendent orbs, 
and its present appearance, when the heavens 
were dark, and when no concourse of people, 
no flambeaux, or carriages, with their proud 
attendants, filled the vast surrounding area. 

In the morning M and Dr. Loewe visited 

the several schools and libraries belonging to our 
community. They were accompanied by the 
deputies, who are ever eager to manifest kind 
attention and respect. 

ROME. 171 

Thursday, April 4. Rome. "Rode to Signor 
Rittig. the artist who painted The Study of the 
Painters, a picture which M admired ex- 
ceedingly at the exhibition. Having looked at 
many designs by this artist, from subjects fur- 
nished by the Old Testament, we at last agreed 
to purchase the " Study " for one hundred and 
fifty scudi, the sum originally asked. The rain 
poured down in torrents as we went to the 
Port a del Popolo, to take a second view of our 
new purchase, and which greatly pleased us. 

We next visited the studio of Signor S , 

and inspected several productions of this- admir- 
able artist, consisting chiefly of females in Greek 

Monsignor B paid us a visit : he conversed 

in a most agreeable manner on several subjects, 
and spoke more particularly of our brethren in 
this city. His sentiments were evidently dictated 
by a kindly feeling, and I did not conceal from 
him the indignation with which I should be ani- 
mated at finding myself denied all opportunity 
of acquiring distinction by the free and honour- 
able exertion of such ability as might be con- 
ferred upon me by the Author of my being. 

Friday, April 5. Rome. Accompanied my 

dear M to synagogue, where several ladies 

awaited me. A crimson velvet and gold chair 


was placed in the centre for me, and the whole 
interior of the building was illuminated with wax 
candles and lamps, the walls being hung with rich 
crimson satin, while the crowns and bells of the 
sepharim were of chased gold and silver, and the 
cloaks of rich brocaded silk, embroidered with 
flowers and various devices, and with the arms of 
the donor in gold and silver. At the conclusion 
of the service, I was conducted down, and re- 
quested to walk through the synagogue and sit 
in the chair appropriated to the Haham. Embar- 
rassing as was the proffered honour, I did not like 
to refuse it, lest my doing so might have offended 
the kind feelings of those by whom it was 
tendered. The prayers were said in a very de- 
vout manner, and without the introduction of 
modern airs in the chanting. After the service 
an excellent sermon was delivered in Italian, by 
a senior student of the Talmud Torah School, 
a young man of ability, who has studied medi- 
cine with great success, but his practice will be 
limited to the Ghetto, his religion being an 
effectual bar to his more extensive encourage- 
ment. We were afterwards shown a superb and 
numerous collection of mantles, curtains, &c., be- 
longing to another synagogue. 

Saturday April 6. Rome. A Mr. D. from 

Canada, and his mother, returned with M to 

ROME. 173 

breakfast. We were informed that this gentle- 
man's establishment is considered one of the 
richest and most respectable in Canada. He is 
travelling for his health, which now appears re- 
stored. We walked up the Corso, and having 
looked at the different mosaic and cameo shops, 
proceeded to the exhibition to view our picture. 
Monsignor B - passed an hour with us in the 
evening. He said it was to be a grand day at 
one of the churches to-morrow, and that his 
holiness was to assist in the ceremonies, during 
which a number of young girls were to receive 
marriage portions. An interesting spectacle ! 
There are many charitable institutions in Rome. 
The hospital for relieving the convalescent is 
a most valuable institution, for there the poor, 
when recovering from severe illness, are allowed 
to remain till they acquire sufficient strength to 
enable them to resume their habitual labour. 
Sunday, April 7. Rome. A rainy morning. 

My dear M has a severe cold, and I devoted 

the forenoon to letter- writing, till I was obliged 
to make calls. The rain poured down al diluvio, 
the short time that I was out. We had a small 

dinner-party of gentlemen, and Monsignor B 

favoured us with his company in the evening. 
He appears to be a prelate of liberal ideas ; cer- 
tainly his conversation and manners are agree- 
able. He is quite the courtier. 


The dinner passed off very well, considering the 
difficulty of making the cook understand our 
taste, he being accustomed to use so much oil in 
all his dishes. We sent some presents of Pass- 
over cakes to several of our friends. They are 
held in great estimation here, though in my 
opinion their quality is not equal to those we 
obtain in England, the biscuits being much 
thicker, but of a lighter nature. The holidays 
pass on much more cheerfully than the first 
evening led us to anticipate. 

Monday, April 8. Rome. Went to the Ghetto 

to look at some brocades belonging to Mr. T , 

as M wishes to make choice of some for a 

mantle for a sepher. That gentleman had pur- 
chased them for his own use at Naples, and 

politely offered the same for M 's acceptance, 

but that was out of the question. He at last 
agreed to part with them at the price which he 
had himself paid. I made a present to their 
school of industry, about to be established and 

sanctioned by his holiness. M presented 

the congregations, their officers, and poor, with 
handsome donations, in return for their great 
attentions during our sojourn in this city. We 
received at dinner, at the Hotel de Russie, Colonel, 

Mrs. and Miss S , the Abb^ F , &c., &c. 

The host provided a very handsome enter- 

ROME. 175 

tainment. We ourselves could partake only of 
sweets, ices, wine, and fruit. It was twelve 
before we returned home. 

Tuesday, April 9. Rome. We visited to-day 
the studio of Messrs. Gibson, Macdonald, and 
Wyatt, and saw some beautiful pieces of sculp- 
ture. A group of a Shepherd and Nymph, and 
a Venus and Cupid, by Gibson, ordered for the 
Duke Torlonia's gallery, are extremely beautiful. 
Macdonald excels in busts, and there were many 
of the English nobility. It is gratifying to 
observe the success of British artists in Rome. 

Mr. M brought me a small broom made of 

the palm, called the asperella, and which had 
received the blessing of the pope on one of the 
fete days, having been sprinkled with wine, and 
used for brushing the altar. 

Wednesday, April 10. Rome. The gentlemen 

from the congregation called, and M received 

a letter in the name of the community, expres- 
sive of thanks and gratitude. Their attention 
has been unusual and unlooked-for, and we can 
but wish them, in return, a share of the advan- 
tages enjoyed in other countries. It is a sad 
thing to behold the energies of the mind cramped 
by the utter discouragement opposed to their 
development and exercise. 

We visited some mosaic shops, and I purchased 


two brooches, and M a set of Herculaneum 

plates. Four of the gentlemen of the deputation 
took tea with us. Dr. Loewe dined with the 
Prussian minister, who started some difficulties 
respecting his passport, he having been absent 
from Berlin longer than the stated time. 

Thursday, April 11. Rome. Prepared for our 

journey. M went with Dr. Loewe to Messrs. 

Freeborn and Jones, to obtain a signature to his 
passport. It has also been vise by the pope's go- 
vernment. The Prussian minister said this would 
be sufficient, but he regretted the rules of his 
government would not permit him to add his 
signature, a return to Berlin being first required. 
Dr. Loewe intends proceeding with it as it is. 
We left cards at Duke Torlonia's, &c., &c., and 
then drove round the Villa Borghese. The trees 
are now displaying a rich luxuriance of white, 
yellow, and purple blossoms, sweet promises of 
the not far distant summer. Nothing scarcely 
can be more beautiful than these grounds, re- 
freshed as they are by bright and gushing foun- 
tains, and everywhere ornamented by statues 
and other works of art. The prince was driving 
the princess in an elegant curricle, drawn by a 
pair of greys. 

Friday, April 12. Civita Vecchia. At eight 
o'clock we again bade adieu to Rome, accompa- 


nied by Dr. Loewe, from whose society, intelli- 
gence, and experience, gained in a recent visit to 
the Holy City and its environs, we hope to derive 
great advantage. The able explanation which 
he gave us of the Psalms appropriated to the day, 
and which he read in Hebrew and English, was 
very impressive. 

The road was indifferent, presenting a succes- 
sion of ascents and descents. Within four miles 
of the first change of horses, we observed on the 
left an ancient circular building, filled with 
human skulls, exposed to the view of passing 
travellers a sad memento of our common mor- 

We could obtain but one postillion on chang- 
ing horses ; this caused a slight detention, and as 
we proceeded we found still further inconvenience, 
for the horses became unmanageable. Armstrong 
descended, but could render little help, and we 
thought it more prudent to quit the carriage and 
walk forward for a time. The wild flowers in 
the hedges, and the beauty of the scenery amply 
consoled us. Magnificent also was the distant 
view ; on the one side the sea rolling its majestic 
waves, while on the other huge rocks rose beetling, 
like a gigantic fortress, erected, as it might have 
been fancied, to protect the smiling corn-fields 
and valleys that lay below. 


We reached Civita Vecchia at half -past three. 
The town, which is strongly fortified, though 
small, enjoys considerable prosperity from the 
constant influx of strangers, brought by the steam- 
boats from different places on the Mediterranean. 

We found Mr. T awaiting our arrival. He had 

travelled from Rome during the night, in order 
to make preparations for our passing the sab- 
bath here ; another instance of his indefatigable 
and kind attention towards us. Having dined 
together we returned to take coffee, and pass the 
evening at our hotel, where we enjoyed better 
accommodation than could have been expected. 

Saturday, April 13. Civita Vecchia. Some 

excellent fish, provided by Mr. T , made our 

breakfast equal to an English one. We walked 
on the Bastion, and through the town. A new 
road is being formed from this place to Leghorn, 
and from which both towns, it is expected, will 
derive no small advantage. In the evening, in 
consequence of several new arrivals, we changed 
our sitting-room for an upper one, of which we 
were allowed to retain sole possession. 

Sunday, April 14. Civita Vecchia. A lovely 
morning ! The steam-boats from Marseilles are 
in the harbour, and we are again about to trust 
ourselves to the mercy of the waves, or rather to 
the protecting hand of Him by whom not only the 


ocean but every element of the universe is ordered 
and controlled. After writing a few lines in my 

dear M 's letter to Mr. G , all was ready 

at one o'clock, and having taken leave of our 
friends, and dispatched the servants with the 
luggage, we stepped into a boat, and were rowed 
to the Sesostris, a French steamer, a beautiful 
vessel of one hundred and sixty horse power, 

commanded by Captain C . At half -past one 

we raised anchor, and with a fair wind were soon 
out of harbour. 

Mr. T came on board again to say farewell. 
He was to sail in the afternoon for Marseilles. 
After offering up prayers for our safe voyage, we 
quietly took our seats on deck. There was only 
one lady on board besides myself, a Greek, who 
with her father, brother and nephew, were return- 
ing from Marseilles to Syra, after attending the 
marriage of the lady's brother, and passing six 
months in France. Her fine dark eyes and clear 
complexion were very beautiful, but regret was 
depicted on her countenance, the effect of bidding 
farewell to the gaieties of France, or perhaps some 
object of peculiar regard. Several English gentle- 
men, with some French and German, formed a 
party of about fifty passengers. The commander 
and other officers of the boat were of the royal 
navy of France. The ladies' cabin was beautifully 
N 2 


fitted up with oak inlaid with rosewood, and a 
handsome piano and music-books formed part of 
the furniture. 

The dinner-bell at four o'clock cleared the 
deck of most of the gentlemen. At six the cap- 
tain's dinner was announced, to which we were 
invited. A great variety of dishes and courses 
were served. Felt very sick. 

Monday, April 15. On board the Sesostris. 
Passed a tolerable night, considering all circum- 
stances. It was extremely fortunate that the 
number of females in our cabin did not exceed 
three, or the heat would have been intolerable. 
The stewardess made the third. Ann was quite 
useless, la maladie de mer rendering her incapable 
of stirring. She might truly be pronounced not 
seaworthy. The scrubbing of decks and hourly 
ringing of the bell, the creaking of the rudder- 
chains, and heaving the lead, did not admit of 

uninterrupted repose. M , not relishing the 

double row of cribs, and the number of nocturnal 
companions, was dressed by six o'clock. The wind 
was against us. I had just taken my seat next 
the lady and my dear M , at the captain's 
table, and made an eifort to break the shell of an 
egg, when I was glad to hasten on deck, where 
the air and a reclining posture somewhat restored 
me. In the evening I took a glass of lemonade, 

MALTA. 181 

and commenced the study of Arabic, in which 
Dr. Loewe encourages me to hope I may be, in 
some degree, able to express myself on our arrival 
in Syria. 

Tuesday, April 16. The Sesostris. The predic- 
tion of our pilot, when he quitted the vessel on 
Sunday, that we should be in the harbour of 
Malta at eight o'clock this evening, will not, I fear 
be verified, the wind still continuing against us. 
The weather is fine, but the breeze generally 
freshens from two till six,, causing a swell, and, 
as a necessary consequence, a most unpleasant 
motion of the vessel. Several tunny -fish were 
observed swimming about the vessel to-day. We 
proceed at the rate of seven knots ; yesterday, at 
one time, as fast as ten. The captain expects 
that we shall arrive about one o'clock in the 
morning. At dusk I had recourse to my cot, 
and found quiet the best remedy. 

Wednesday, April 17. Malta. In writing the 
word Malta how many feelings are revived, which, 
like most of those which memory excites, are 
composed in an almost equal degree of pleasure 
and regret ! Friends who greeted us here, on our 
former arrival, with the warmth of affection, are 
now no more ! Many events, filling up the inter- 
val of years, crowd upon the mind ; nor are there 
wanting sensations produced by the contrast 


between the present voyage of three days and 
nights, in an admirable vessel, and that encoun- 
tered in our previous journey. 

The captain had calculated correctly as to our 
arrival. At half -past twelve this morning I j udged, 
by the calling of the seamen, and the ceasing of 
the creaking at the helm, that we were safe in the 
harbour. This was confirmed in a few minutes 
by M , who tapping at the cabin-door an- 
nounced our arrival. The pleasant and grateful 
feeling such intelligence produces, after a sea- 
voyage, can only be appreciated by those who 
have experienced it. The cabin-maid came to re- 
mind me of a promise, that the douceur intended 
for her should be bestowed separately, and not be 
included in that to the other attendants, who, ac- 
cording to her account, would have kept it all to 

themselves. Miss F having recommended 

us to Dimsford's Hotel, we sent Armstrong to 
engage rooms there, and Dr. Loewe went on 
shore to order breakfast. At nine o'clock we 
found ourselves comfortably seated at a nice 
breakfast-table, and listening again to the 
pleasant sounds of our own language. 

Thursday, April 18. Malta. At this place the 
minds of most travellers are principally occupied 
either with plans for an extended tour, or with 
the many thoughts which arise at the prospect of 

MALTA. 183 

home. We learn that the next French steam- 
boat will take its departure for Alexandria on the 
27th instant, and the English one on the 5th of 
May; a long detention, but we find the air cool 
and salubrious, far more so than I ever before 
experienced it in the month of April at Malta. I 
have ordered some white morning dresses, and a 
merino riding-habit for the journey in Egypt. 

Our kind friend, Mrs. C , has just called. 

She is as cheerful and conversant as ever. M 

has been to deliver his letters to Admiral Stop- 
ford and the governor. Sir John and Lady S 

have left the island, the office of judge-advocate, 
which that gentleman held, being abolished. I 
very much regret their absence, and the reduction 
of their income from fifteen hundred pounds per 
annum to five hundred, the effects of retrench- 
ment. What changes since our last visit ! how 
many have paid the debt of nature ! Poor General 

P , Mary S , and her brothers, Lady 

E , &c. May we in thankfulness devote our 

future time to the Almighty, who has graciously 
permitted us to enjoy life still, with some 
honour and many blessings ! 

Friday, April 19. Malta. Mrs. C , who 

passed yesterday evening with us, recounted to 
us, all the news of the island, which, like that of 
most other places, was mixed up with many traits 


of human weakness and folly. The experiment 
of the silk company has proved a failure, and the 
mulberry-trees of the Boschetto are all rooted 

up, much to the mortification of Mr. M , who 

used to pride himself on their cultivation. 

We have received a card of invitation to dine 
with the governor on Saturday. Mr. Frere called, 
as did also Sir H. Grey, and Mr. and Mrs. Bell. 
We went to synagogue. Several Turks from 
Morocco were there. A chair was brought me 
as preferable to a seat on the bench. We after- 
wards passed a very agreeable evening. 

Saturday, April 20. Malta. At eight o'clock, 
after taking a cup of coffee, went to synagogue. 
The building is situated in Strada Reale, and is 
very neat and clean. About six families of our 
nation reside here, and the congregation, includ- 
ing strangers and children, amounted to about 
thirty persons. 

I was the only female present. In the course 

of the morning Mrs. P and her daughter paid 

us a visit ; also Mr. A and his sons, Admiral 
Sir Robert Stopford, Sir Hector Grey, and Mr. 
Frere called. After hearing Dr. Loewe's excel- 
lent observations on the portion for the day, and 
the Psalms, we walked out and met Mr. MacGill, 
who accompanied us round the Barracca and 
the bastions. We had a few drops of rain, 

MALTA. 185 

but the dulness of the sky, in a climate like that 
of Malta, in nowise diminished the pleasure of 
the exercise. At seven the sedan was brought, 
and we proceeded to the governor's. On arriving 
at the palace we passed through a spacious en- 
trance-hall, where there were soldiers and ser- 
vants in attendance. Two handsome flights of 
stairs led to the drawing-room, where we were 
met by officers, who introduced us to his excel- 
lency, whose reception was polite and agreeable. 
We found assembled Admiral and Lady Stopford, 

their son, and two daughters ; Captain P of 

the Rodney ; and Captain S - of the Minden ; 
Captain L , and several other persons of dis- 
tinction. Sir J. and Lady M , and her 

sister (Miss J ), and Sir H. G followed. 

The Duke of Devonshire arrived at about seven, 
his grace having this morning received pratique, 
after his visit to Constantinople. There was a 
most elegant dinner, though no display of orna- 
ment, the dishes being all served from the side- 
boards, and the dessert only placed on the table. 
Admiral Stopford took me in to dinner. He pro- 
mised to do what lay in his power to aid our ob- 
taining a steam- boat direct to Jaffa. I found him 
a most agreeable companion, as I did also Cap- 
tain L , who was placed on my left. The 

Duke of Devonshire had been highly gratified 


with Constantinople. His grace, while there, re- 
turned every evening to sleep on board his steam- 
boat. He had obtained, with his party, permis- 
sion to visit all the mosques. In the course of the 
conversation it was stated that war would even- 
tually take place between the sultan and the vice- 
roy, but that Europe was exerting its best energies 
to ward off hostilities. Some mention was also 
made of the silk company established here. The 
governor said it could never succeed, for the worm 
required quiet and cleanliness. The establish- 
ment had cost the government some hundreds, and 
had certainly proved equally detrimental to the 
poor directors. Lady Stopford did the honours, 
the governor being a widower. We returned 
home much pleased, a little past ten o'clock. 

Sunday, April 21. Malta. After the Psalms 
for the day, and my Arabic lesson, we walked for 
an hour on the Barracca, but the sky was over- 
cast, and the sirocco wind was up. Having entered 
St. John's church, our attention was directed to 
the beautiful tombstones of the knights, which 
form the pavement, their arms being emblazoned 
upon them in exquisite mosaic work. In this 
church is also a bronze statue of Moses bearing 
the tables of the law. We descended to the 
grating of the subterranean chapel, where some of 
the old masters lie entombed. Queen Adelaide's 

MALTA. 187 

donation of eight thousand pounds for building 
a church was greatly extolled. The structure is 
already commenced, and will be a superb edifice. 
Her Majesty is expected, on its completion, to 
renew her visit to the island. The site is that 
of the late residence of Sir John Stoddart. For- 
merly the streets were of the rudest kind, they are 
now Macadamized, and an excellent raised pave- 
ment is constructed on the sides for foot-passen- 
gers. For this the inhabitants are indebted to 
the present governor, Sir Henry Bouverie, but 
the Boschetto is now divested of the trees, which 

were its greatest ornament. M is anxious 

to reach Jerusalem for the Pentecost holidays. 
This would be rapid travelling. 

Monday, April 22. Malta. My Arabic lesson 
occupies a great portion of the forenoon, added 
to which we devote no slight attention to 
Hebrew, and to Dr. Loewe's explanation and 
comments, which are most interesting. Lady 
Stopford called, and we received an invitation to 
dine with her ladyship and the admiral on Wed- 
nesday next. Mrs. C having recommended 

me a Maltese embroidress, who had received 
orders from the Queen for five muslin dresses, I 
ordered one myself, and also a pelerine and a 
mantelletta. The people are delighted to receive 
orders, and work extremely well. In our prome- 


nade we visited a sculptor of the Malta stone, 
and purchased several articles, among which was a 
portrait of the governor, a very excellent likeness. 

We paid a visit to Mr. and Mrs. A , who take 

so much pains in providing our dinner. They re- 
side in a very excellent house, delightfully clean, 
and the rooms are ornamented with drawings by 
their son, and specimens of embroidery by their 
daughter. They had cake, wine, and liqueurs 
prepared, and were delighted at our visit. M 
and Dr. Loewe dined at Sir Hector Grey's, where 
they were extremely well entertained, and met 
fourteen gentlemen, including the Duke of 
Devonshire, the governor, and admiral. 

Tuesday, April 23. Malta. The Winifred 
arrived from Naples, bringing sixty passengers. 
All the hotels are full. We, therefore, to oblige 
the landlady, gave up one of our rooms, with a 
proviso that we were to use it when required. The 
country is now ornamented with rich clover, beans, 
and barley almost ripe. The roads being Mac- 
adamized renders it safe for the horses, and not 
less so for the good-tempered calassier. The 
evening was passed at the opera, and we were 
well pleased with the performance of Gabrielle, 
but the house was not crowded. 

Wednesday, April 24. Malta. Mr. Frere 
invited us to dine with him yesterday, and we 

MALTA. 189 

were expected, M 's apology not having been 

understood by that gentleman. 

There was a large party, including the Duke of 
Devonshire. We visited the ornamental marble- 
works of Darmaum and Sons. They appear to be 

imitations of the Florentine mosaic. M 

ordered a small round table of the horse and the 
palm-tree. It was a strange coincidence that Dr. 
Loewe should have translated the original Car- 
thaginian inscription for Osman Bey, who re- 
ceived the piece of sculpture found at Carthage 
as a present from Sir W. Temple. We dined at 
Admiral Stopford's. The party, consisting of 
about twenty persons, was extremely agreeable 
and elegant. There was also an evening party. 
Many expressed a desire to make the tour which 
we ourselves have in contemplation. Dr. Loewe 
was requested to translate some Turkish writing 
on a China cup ; and Lady Stopford was so well 
pleased, that several small mummies were handed 
to him for an explanation of their hieroglyphical 
inscriptions, and which he immediately gave. 
Captain Fisher said, if I would obtain the 
admiral's permission he should be delighted to 
take us in his ship, the Asia, to Syria, and ac- 
company us to Jerusalem. 

Thursday, April 25. Malta. We took a drive 
to Civita Victoriosa, to return the visit of Lady 


L and her daughters. The house is pleasantly 

situated in the docks. In the square is a monu- 
ment surmounted by a statue of victory. But an 
object far more attractive than any of these mute 
solicitors of attention, was a beautiful little boy, 
who, walking on the terrace with his Maltese 
nurse, answered in his countenance, not unfit- 
tingly, to our weak notions of an angel. 

Several line-of-battle ships sailed early this 

morning. Mr. F , who called on us, while 

speaking of the Campagna di Roma, and the stag- 
nant waters in the neighbourhood, the probable 
cause of the malaria in hot seasons, observed, 
that from the volcanic nature of the soil the 
ditches were soon filled up again, after the most 
strenuous efforts had been made to drain them. 

Mrs. C dined with us, and accompanied us to 

the opera. II Barbiere de Seviglia was very well 
performed, for the benefit of the Basso Cantante. 
The house was crowded, and the Duke of Devon- 
shire was in the pit. There was a violent storm 
of thunder, lightning, and rain, on our return. 

Friday, April 2(3. Malta. A cloudy morning. 
Dr. Loewe, on leaving the opera yesterday even- 
ing, recognized Mr. Roquerbe, the Prussian consul 
at Alexandria, and whom he introduced to us 
to-day. He gives us very tranquillizing accounts 
of politics in the East, and says that the 

MALTA. 191 

Sultan and pasha will not be allowed by Europe 

to commence hostilities. Mr. B will leave 

to-morrow morning by the Sesostris, with his 
wife and family for Marseilles. The Duke of 
Devonshire takes his passage in the same vessel. 
We drove to St. Antonio. The orange and lemon- 
trees are in full blossom. Long before we entered 
the grounds the air was laden with their perfumes: 
Nor did we fail to recognise the pepper-trees and 
beautiful aloes. The gardener presented us with 
excellent oranges, and some of a smaller kind, 
called the mandoline, and also with exquisite 
flowers and leaves of the India-rubber-tree. 
Having returned to the hotel, dressed, and gone 
to synagogue, we passed an exceedingly agreeable 
evening, Dr. Loewe translating and commenting 
on that part of the holy writings in which the 
Almighty appears to Moses on Mount Sinai ; 
and other passages, which demonstrate the 
peculiar favour exercised by him towards his 

Saturday, April 27. Malta. Went to syna- 
gogue, and on our return called on Mr. and Mrs. 

P . They have lived twenty years at Malta. 

Their house is spacious and nicely arranged. 
Indeed, most of the houses in Malta are hand- 
some, the stone affording an excellent material 
for building purposes. On our return we found 


a gentleman from Tripoli waiting for us, and soon 

after Mr. and Mrs. L , with her son, paid us a 

visit. In the evening we went to the opera to see 
a tragedy, the music of which was by Donizetti. 
A most delicious night ! the lustre of the moon 
reflecting in the glassy waters with silvery bright- 
ness, induced us to propose a drive round the 
harbour. The good-tempered calassier seemed 
pleased attheproposal,and disregardful of trouble. 
Sunday, April 28. Malta. The weather con- 
tinues windy, with a cloudy sky, and I am agree- 
ably surprised at not having to complain of any 
excessive warmth. It is a wonderful advantage 
to me. We took a drive to Civita Vecchia, to see 
St. Paul's Grotto, and the churches of that ancient 
town, where the apostle is stated to have been 
driven on shore after his shipwreck, and where he 
is also said to have resided some time. We would 
not descend to the catacombs. A good-tempered 
priest lighted us to the Grotto, and received the 
preferred douceur as a most welcome tribute. 
The immense number of mendicants, old and 
young, who followed us from a place down the 
road to where the calasse awaited our return, be- 
spoke distressing destitution ; but we were after- 
wards told that their appearance did not exactly 
represent their condition, some of the older among 
them, like the beggars of other countries, being 

MALTA. 193 

suspected of having made a profitable traffic with 
their lamentations and petitions. The cholera 
had worked fearful ravages among these unfor- 

The French consul sent Dr Loewe the Smyrna 
newspapers, and it distressed us to observe in that 
of the 14th April, a report that the plague had 
broken out at Jerusalem, and that many signs of 
war were beginning to present themselves. The 
feelings which arose at the contemplation of this 
intelligence reminded us forcibly of former anxie- 
ties excited as we looked towards Eastern climes. 

Monday, April 29. Malta. Received an invi- 
tation to dine with Sir Robert and Lady Stopford, 
which we declined. The Blazer arrived to-day 
from Alexandria, with dispatches from India ; but 
before the vessel entered the harbour the letters 
and dispatches were removed into another ship, 
and immediately forwarded to Marseilles, without 
waiting for the Malta letters. A conjecture is thus 
awakened that some important news may be con- 
tained in the dispatches. Lieutenant W , 

commander of the government steamboat, called, 
and most civilly offered his services. He is re- 
lated to Mr. S - of London. 

The fall of rain in the morning prevented our 
going early to Mr. Frere's, which we had wished 
to do, in order to see his beautiful garden at La 


Pieta, where that gentleman has effected many 
improvements. We met at his house an agree- 
able party of fourteen, and the urbanity and intel- 
ligence of the host gave an additional zest to the 
elegance of the dinner, which was served on plate, 
and wanted none of the luxuries, consisting of 
wines, fruits of every kind, and ices, so accept- 
able in this near approach to climes glowing with 
ardent suns. The house is beautifully furnished. 
Some of the rooms are hung with rich tapestry, 
and among the busts we observed that of Mr. 
Frere's beautiful niece, now Lady Hamilton. 

Tuesday, April 30. Malta. The Megara, 
English steamboat, arrived this morning from 
Corfu. It is by this vessel that we purpose 
taking our passage to Alexandria ; and if permis- 
sion can possibly be obtained, to be landed by it 
afterwards at Jaffa. The granting of this favour 
rests with Admiral Sir John Louis, with whom 
we dine on Thursday ; and on which occasion I 
shall not neglect to urge the best arguments in my 
power to obtain this much-desired accommodation. 
There is much difficulty in the way, the steam- 
boats being as regular as mail-coaches. 

Prince George of Cambridge arrived this morn- 
ing from Gibraltar, and his presence has diffused 
universal gaiety through Valetta. The royal 
standard floats proudly again on the palace. No- 

MALTA. 195 

thing could be more lively than the scene pre- 
sented, as the prince rode down the Strada Reale, 
accompanied by the governor and a numerous 
band of officers, while the streets were crowded 
with spectators, and the blue sky in all its bril- 
liancy seemed like a beautiful canopy crowning 
the spectacle. The prince looks remarkably well. 
He intends remaining here ten days, and then 
proceeding to Constantinople. 

The Megara will leave on Friday next. We 
have, therefore, begun our preparations in earnest. 
May the Almighty grant us a safe and propitious 
voyage ! 

During a ride to La Pieta this morning, we 
felt the whole charm of the season. The country 
was clothed in the loveliest verdure, and the 
French honeysuckle, lupa, or clover, cultivated 
here as forming useful food for cattle, shone 
with peculiar richness of hue. The barley has im- 
proved astonishingly within the last three days, 
and already appears nearly ripe for the scythe. 

M went on board the Megara, which is a very 

fine ship, and Captain W kindly came to 

say that he had engaged the best cabin for us. 

At the opera, to which Miss P accompanied 

us, the Barbiere di Seviglia was performed to a 
crowded audience ; Prince George and other per- 
sons of distinction being present. On our return 
o 2 


we found the " Times" newspaper. It speaks in 
a warlike tone. 

A watch-tower in the quarantine harbour has 
two expressive symbols on one side an eye, on 
the other an ear ! 

Wednesday, May 1. Malta. The first report 
we heard this morning, after arranging the clothes 
requisite for our Eastern journey, was, that the 
plague raged at Jerusalem, and that the gates 
of the city were consequently closed. This 
news excited no slight uneasiness. Dr. Loewe, 

immediately wrote to Mr. S , from whom 

he had heard the report, to ascertain more 
certainly the grounds on which it rested. We 
paid a visit to Mr. and Mrs. L ; and pre- 
vious to taking our departure a large bunch of 
ostrich feathers was brought into the room, and 
I was requested to accept them. After many ex- 
cuses on my part I was suffered to decline the 
pressing offer of the whole, provided I would allow 
three to be prepared for me against my return. 

On completing our farewell calls we took a boat 
to the quarantine harbour, to speak to the captain 

of the Blazer, Mr. W , in the hope of obtaining 

information from Mr. and Mrs. F , passengers 

from Egypt and Syria. We found them at the 
Lazaretto, and the account they gave tended 
greatly to tranquillize our minds respecting the 

MALTA. 197 

plague, though they stated that the gates of the 
city had been closed when they arrived at Jeru- 
salem, and that they were obliged to perform 

Their description of the sufferings of the peo- 
ple, especially of those of our own nation, was cal- 
culated to excite the most painful feelings. Some, 

they stated, were almost starving, and Mr. F 

had himself witnessed instances of the cruel 
tyranny exercised against them by the Turks. 
Both this gentleman and his lady were extremely 
obliging, offering to afford us any information in 
their power, and already giving us that which is 
likely to prove of no slight value. 

M , still not free from alarm, remarked that 

he should leave me here, in case the information 
proved true respecting the plague, and pursue his 
journey to the Holy City alone. This I peremp- 
torily resisted, and the expressions of Ruth fur- 
nished my heart at the moment with the language 
it most desired to use. " Entreat me not to leave 
thee, or to return from following after thee ; for 
whither thou goest I will go, and where thou 
lodgest I will lodge ! " 

Thursday, May 2. Malta. Went to syna- 
gogue to implore the blessing of the Almighty, 
and that his presence and favour may secure us 
a safe and speedy voyage. At an early hour in 


the forenoon we paid our farewell visits, and then, 
took a boat to carry a bouquet and some news- 
papers to Mr. and Mrs. F . The former had 

written us a long letter of instruction and advice, 
with tracks and accounts of the route he had 
pursued in Syria. He strongly recommends our 
taking a supply of wine and spirits from this 
place, such articles being of essential importance 
in the desert. 

We next proceeded to the custom-house stairs, 

to keep an engagement with Sir John L , 

who had offered to accompany us in a visit to 
the royal naval hospital. The gallant admiral 
soon made his appearance, and we were delighted 
at surveying the establishment so admirably fit- 
ted to secure the comfort of the brave men who 
may become its inmates. Sir John showed us the 
most kind attention, and presented me with some 
large blossoms of the cactus growing wild on the 
banks, and a quantity of scarlet geranium. He 
then conveyed us in his boat across the harbour, 
where the calesse awaited our return. Lady 
Louis had kindly written to say that a covered 
boat would be in waiting for us at seven o'clock, 
at which hour we were engaged to dine at their 
hospitable house. We passed a most agreeable 

Friday, May 3. Malta. We were gratified 

MALTA. 199 

by receiving, this morning, before our departure 
for Alexandria, two letters, the one from Mrs. 

M , and the other from my sister H . 

More acceptable farewell presents could not have 
been brought us, for they announced the well- 
being of those who are so dear to our thoughts. 
Nor were they to be disregarded by us as signs 
of the goodness of the Almighty at this moment 
of our departure. Oh, how manifold is his loving- 
kindness ! how numberless his mercies ! May we 
ever strive to be deserving of their continuance ! 

Mrs. C , who came before breakfast to take 

leave, brought us a present of orange-syrup and 

marmalade, made by herself. M went to pay 

his respects to the governor and Prince George. 
They both kindly inquired after me. The latter 
expressed his regret at not seeing me previously 
to setting off. He had suffered from the measles 
while at Gibraltar. 

All the arrangements being made, Henry, our 
valet-de-place, went with us in the boat, to which 
we were followed by the nichts mangiare, lame, 
blind dumb, &c. A quarantine boat rowed 
alongside till we reached the Megara, where the 
captain was in readiness to receive us. He 
politely welcomed us to his ship, and handed me 
to the cabin, where luncheon was prepared ; but 
the rolling of the vessel, contrary winds, and 


the fumes of the viands, compelled my immediate 
resort to the deck, where I remained till about 
four o'clock, when the heaving of the sea caused 
the usual maladie, and my berth was the remedy. 
Saturday, May 4. On board the Megara. 
Suffering from the effects of contrary wind, I was 
obliged to remain in my cot all day. Poor dear 

M passed the night on the sofa in the large 

cabin, which the captain calls the best place in 
the ship; but as he was not able to relieve himself 
of his clothes he was not very capable of enjoy- 
ing it. Dr. Loewe is in a helpless state, not able 
to speak a word, or to look up. Ann is des- 
perately ill; Armstrong the only one of our 
party in a tolerable situation. I find the servants 
on board remarkably civil and attentive, and we 
can procure every requisite, and even luxury. We 
have altogether about twelve passengers, but the 
ladies' cabin is fortunately entirely at our service. 
The captain names about six different sorts of 
wine that we can call for, and cura9oa with 
maraschino are handed round after dinner; mar- 
malade and other preserves at breakfast ; and if 
the wind were to change so as to ease the rolling 
of the ship, we should have nothing to wish for. 
The bell rings every half hour, and the speed of 
the vessel, which is tried every hour, is at the 
rate of eight knots. 


Sunday, May 5. On board the Megara.A. 
change of the wind in our favour has been 
followed by an improvement in our feelings. At 

the persuasion of M , who calls me an admiral, 

after having honoured me with the title of general 
on land, I was on deck by nine o'clock. I was 
not able, however, to conquer any part of a 
nice breakfast ; but a luncheon of chicken did 
not escape the attacks of returning appetite. It 
was highly pleasing to see the nicely-dressed 
crew mustered in review before being called to 
prayers. Their straw hats, blue jackets, white 
trousers, and smart shoes honoured the sabbath 
day. They followed the captain and officers 
down to the cabin, where prayers and a sermon 
were delivered by the captain, the whole occupy- 
ing about an hour. The gentlemen passengers 
also attended. 

The power of the sun to-day, the thermometer 
rising, induced the captain to put up an awning. 
The heat at one time rose to a hundred degrees. 

Several birds were seen flying about all day 
doves, yellow-breasts, and swallows. Some of 
the fatigued little creatures were captured by the 
crew in the evening, but they promise to set them 
at liberty to-morrow, instead of making them 
into a savoury pie. I was obliged to take refuge 
on the mattrass on deck, about five o'clock ; but 


soon after was advised, on account of the damp 
to descend to my cot, where I was followed by 
Ann, as poorly as myself. 

Monday, May 6. On board the Megara. I 
hear the call of eight knots with pleasure, a sound 
of this kind being far more pleasing than that of 
the creaking of the tiller, or of the people's foot- 
steps on deck. The fall of rain obliged us to 
breakfast in our cabin. An agreeable conversa- 
tion afterwards took place with two gentlemen 
who joined us, and who are going to Jerusalem. 

One of them, Mr. C , has already made the 

tour of Egypt : Dr. Loewe met him at Thebes. 
We are very desirous of being landed at Jaffa in- 
stead of Beyrout, should that place be free from 
plague, otherwise we should have to perform 
quarantine before entering the Holy City. The 
captain is not certain whether or not it may be 
possible to accede to our wishes, the issue depend- 
ing on the arrival of the Indian mail. The whole 
table is strewed with maps of Egypt and Syria. 
We have an Egyptian on board, with whom Dr. 
Loewe carries on long conversations in Arabic. I 
was quite proud of being able to speak two or 
three words in that language ; and the Egyptian 
gentleman seemed as astonished as my instructor 

was pleased. M gave a look of approbation. 

We enjoyed a fine roast turkey for dinner in the 


cabin, and joined the captain and other gentlemen 
at tea, who were pleased at the addition to their 
party. The log was twice heaved during the 
evening. A change has been experienced in the 
weather, the thermometer standing at only sixty 
degrees, as great as might have been witnessed 
in England. 

Tuesday, May 7. On board the Megara. 
The doctor of the ship, at M 's suggestion, pre- 
scribed for me. A Maltese woman passenger, with 
her little son and daughter, are going to Jaffa, 
after touching at Beyrout, to meet her husband, 
who is guardiano there. Dr. Loewe is copying 
one of Arrowsmith's maps of Syria, belonging to 

Mr. T , in an excellent manner for M . 

The order and quiet preserved on board is so 
great, that not a word from the men is heard. All 
is still, except when they heave the lead or the 
log. The crew consists of fifty seamen. We 
again took tea in the cabin with the captain and 
passengers. In the course of the evening the 
captain, to amuse us, showed a paper wherein 
were written words in cypher, which were trans- 
lated into English by a Dr. H , without his 

being in the least acquainted with the characters, 
and the translation agreed perfectly with the 
meaning of the two gentlemen who wrote the let- 
ters. M takes a copy of the log. Mr. D , 


whom we met at Sir J. L 's, intends proceed- 
ing to China. He is very gentlemanly in his 

manners, as are also Captain C and Mr. 

T , who are going to Egypt and Syria. The 

latter, on seeing this book filled so far, offered 
to find me one which he does not intend using ; 
comparing himself to the young man who, wishing 
to be poetical, and write a sonnet about the moon, 
could not proceed beyond, " Oh ! there ! " 

Wednesday, May 8. Alexandria. Again we 
are happily landed on Egyptian shores, Alex- 
andria being a second time reached in safety. 
How can we sufficiently praise thy goodness, 
Almighty Power, for this continuance of thy 
beneficent protection ? 

It was at an early hour that I heard the call 
to make ready the anchor a most satisfactory 
sound. At seven o'clock we dressed and went 
on deck to have a sight of Pompey's pillar and 
Cleopatra's needle, objects bright and familiar to 
our memory. So closely did the whole scene be- 
fore us answer to that picture in our recollections, 
that it was with difficulty we could persuade our- 
selves that twelve years had elapsed since our 
former visit. Assuredly it is at particular periods 
like this, that the nothingness of time passed 
is most intensely felt ; but many are the events 
which have occurred in the interval! Among the 


most painful, the loss of three dear friends, one 
at an age when hope might fairly be her most 
cherished companion. But may we not indulge 
the thought that this changing and dangerous 
world has been left for one of infinitely greater 
serenity and safety ? 

The pilot now came on board, and we were 
soon surrounded by Turkish boats, turbans, and 
divers-coloured costumes. The quarantine-boat 
then approached, and our bill of health was 

demanded. Captain G , on handing it out, 

said that it might be taken with the hand ; but 
no ! a long pair of scissors, more resembling a 
pair of tongs, were stretched forth, and by these 
the document was held till perused by the 
janissary. When it had been ascertained that all 
were healthy, this singular instrument was laid 
down and the paper taken by the hand. A 
corpulent Turk, the British consul's head drago- 
man, came on board, and the letter-bags were 
handed out ; while amidst the vociferations and 
unintelligible jargon of the Arabs, numerous 
boats surrounded the ship, the anxious masters 
of which, pleading for themselves, or the hotels 
for which they were employed, could only be 
kept off so as to afford a free passage from the 
vessel, by a copious sprinkling of water. 

Alexandria has been greatly improved since we 


were last here. A new palace for the pacha 
adorns the spacious square; residences for the 
consuls have also been erected ; and railroads 
and a quay betoken the increase of commercial 
spirit. The landing-place did not present the 
same unsightly appearance as formerly, the 
ravenous dogs and other disgusting objects being 
no longer to be seen. 

The donkeys in waiting brought us to Hill's 
hotel, fitted up with Eastern luxury. Nothing 
could exceed the surprise of the guides on my 
addressing them in Arabic. The poor laden 
camel patiently trod its way, nor were we so 
alarmed now that we had not so many narrow 
streets to pass. It was with great pleasure that 
we learned that the city was perfectly healthy, 
and Mr. Hill's hotel furnishing us with every 
comfort, we sat down to our breakfast, consisting 
of fish, omelet, eggs, preserves, and tea, with very 
pleasurable feelings. 

Renewed reports prevail respecting the exist- 
ence of the plague in the vicinity of Jerusalem 
and at Jaffa, not unaccompanied with others of 
hostilities, which are said to have actually com- 
menced between the Sultan and the Viceroy, 
the troops of the former having actually passed 
the Euphrates, while in the midst of the agita- 
tion thus created, every pass and mountain- 
gorge furnishes its troop of banditti. 


Count C paid us a visit, and the calls of 

other persons occupied our time till past seven 
o'clock. A Turkish saddle was brought us to 
look at its price was forty pounds. 

Thursday, May 9. The Megara. Arose at 
five o'clock in order to be in readiness for 
the ship, which was appointed to leave at nine. 
The donkeys having been brought to the door, 
Mrs. Hill had her own saddle put on that which 
was to proceed with me. A cool pleasant morn- 
ing rendered the ride agreeable ; and while 
M - stopped at Mr. T 's I entered a book- 
seller's with Dr. Loewe to inquire for an Arabic 
Dictionary ; but the interior of this poor library 
did not contain that for which we sought. 

Having passed the square, the extensive house 
of the governor, and those of the consuls, we at 
length arrived at the custom-house, where one of 
the young officers of the Megara was in waiting 
to conduct us to the boat, which, after giving the 
Arabs bakshish for their donkeys, we entered, 
casting a momentary glance at the troops that 
were being drilled on the quay, and which con- 
sisted mainly of youths, some of them not more 
than thirteen or fourteen years of age, utterly 
incapable of active warfare, yet destined for 
various parts of Upper Egypt, and to act as the 
defenders of their country's independence. 


We were soon brought alongside the Megara, 

where Captain G was waiting to receive us. 

Again we found ourselves on board this very 
comfortable steamboat, which we had only so 
recently quitted ; and so soon are feelings of 
attachment formed to that which has inspired a 
sense of security amid scenes or circumstances of 
excitement, that it appeared to us, on entering 
the vessel, as if we were returning to a home. 

Our party was reduced in number, Mr. D 
and six other passengers were left at Alexandria ; 

our new Arabian cook, Ibrahim B , and a 

French gentleman, being the only persons who 
had come on board to occupy their place. Several 
Turkish men-of-war were lying at anchor near 
us, and while the ship was being prepared, I 
amused myself with watching the manoeuvres 
of their marines, and those of the Egyptian boats 
which, crowded with merchandise, surrounded 
our vessel. I purchased a mother-of-pearl shell, 
with St. George and the Dragon carved on it. 

A pilot now came on board and mounted the 
paddle-box with our commander ; but he did not 
appear very attentive to his business, it being 
found necessary several times to call him to order, 
and even to threaten him with a report to the 
pacha. When complaints of this kind are made, 
his highness does not hesitate to have the offender 


shot. The somewhat dangerous nature of the 
harbour renders this severity necessary. We 
soon, however, cleared it, and began to feel the 
heavy rolling of the waves without. 

Friday, May 10. The Megara. The ship does 
not roll so much, our system is therefore less 
disturbed than yesterday, and I am able to resume 
my pen. The commander and other gentlemen > 
who came into our cabin to visit us, expressed a 
hope, on seeing the journal in my hand, that I 
should treat them leniently, thinking, as they 
said, that at sea I could find little to comment 
on but scandal. I tell them that that is never 
my amusement, but they shake their heads in 

We are just passing a Turkish sailing-vessel, 
which left Alexandria a day before us. This is 
the advantage of steam. It is a cause of thank- 
fulness to the Almighty that we are far better 
able this evening to attend to our religious duties 
than last Friday, when we were compelled to 
keep our cots. 

Saturday, May 11. Bey rout. At an early 
hour the land of Syria was in view, and at seven 
o'clock the anchor was cast in the Bay of Beyrout. 
We were soon on deck, and magnificent was the 
scene presented to our view. Immediately before 
us rose the lofty mountains of Lebanon, precipi- 


tous, and crowned with snow, in strange contrast 
with the yellow, barren shore, and in stranger still 
with the glowing sky and the dazzling rays of the 
sun, which threw their effulgence far and wide 
over every object that the eye could reach, 
wrapping the town of Zidon itself in a blaze of 
morning splendour. 

For a moment my thoughts were occupied with 
Lady Stanhope, but they were dissipated by the 
appearance of the quarantine-boats. The bill of 
health was received this time, not by a pair of 
large pincers, but in a wooden box, and so con- 
veyed to the authorities, the commander himself 
accompanying the mail. Several Turks came on 
board, and new passengers, who intended return- 
ing by the Megara to Alexandria. Among them 
were two French princes. 

We remained some time on deck admiring the 
prospect of the country, every hill-side being 
covered with the richest foliage, fruit-trees of 
every description appearing in striking com- 
bination with the dark green and sombre hues 
of the majestic cedars. 

Conflicting reports of war and peace, of the 
ravages of the plague, and of freedom from that 
scourge, still continue to harass us ; but we have 
now learnt to feel, that as our only sure defence is 
the benign presence of the Almighty, we must 


commit ourselves in simple trust to his guidance 
and protection. 

Our arrival, it seems, has been long looked-for ; 
and a letter, two years old, was awaiting us from 

Mr. A . Mr. K paid us a visit. We 

had met him at Naples in 1827. He offered us 
a tent and any other accommodation. Mehemet 
Bey, the governor, also offered us two of his 
houses, but we accepted one recommended by 

Mr. M , the consul. In the evening, when we 

could go on shore, the commander conducted us 
in his boat, with six men. As soon as the boat 
left the ship the officers and men assembled at the 
head of the vessel, and saluted us with six huzzas. 
We had treated the men with a supper, and they 
well deserved it for their attention. 

In our walk to the residence engaged for us, 
the description which had been given us of the 
wretched condition of the people was found to be 
sadly correct. The houses were little better than 
mud huts, and the first hotel was a sort of barn, 
used as a drinking-place. We had to cross a road, 
full of large stones and ruts, and to ascend and 
descend numerous hillocks before we arrived at 
the country house assigned us as our residence. 

How melancholy a proof did all this appear to 
afford of the ingratitude of rnan, when surrounded 
by the most bountiful gifts of his Creator, but 
P 2 


of which he has neither the wisdom nor the energy 
to take advantage ! The very olives, and other 
productions which in less favoured climes it 
demands so much labour to cultivate, here shed 
their treasures with spontaneous liberality. Both 
subjects and rulers, however, seem to be influenced 
in this country by the same bad spirit ; and Ibra- 
him Pacha will not, even to save the lives of his 
people, have the roads repaired, or the banks of a 
river kept up, though daily threatening inunda- 
tion. Well-filled coffers are, in his mind, better 
than any conceivable improvements. 

We passed several groups of Arabs seated on 
the ground ; their picturesque costume, the date- 
trees, and minarets, with the strange sound of the 
language, forcibly reminding us of the " Thousand 
and One Nights." The consul's janissary, who, 
with his large silver-headed cane, had conducted 
us to the place, opened the wooden gate of the 
garden, when two Arabian women, a man, and 
some children, came forth to receive us, and led 
us into the house. M , more dead than alive 
from the length of the walk, threw himself down 
on the divan, which filled up the side of a large 
apartment intended for our sitting-room and 
chamber. Dr. Loewe takes possession of an un- 
furnished upper room, and the servants are to find 
shelter and rest where they can. We ourselves 


were soon obliged to escape from the attacks of 
fleas, flies, and mosquitoes on the divan, to our 
portable bed. 

Sunday, May 12. Bey rout. During the night 
the buzzing of the mosquitoes often awoke me 
and on arising this morning I found my face 
covered with spots, which it required all my for- 
bearance to leave as they were. 

The wind was high, and on opening the shut- 
ters we could not keep them fastened ; but as 
we looked out upon the country, our eyes were 
feasted with the loveliest scenery. On one side 
stretched the sea, blue and tranquil, the mirror of 
the sky ; on the other were the swelling hills, 
their green slopes studded with country houses, 
minarets, and arched walls the garden adjoining 
our own residence being filled with date and 

Our breakfast consisted this morning of many 
luxuries, provided by Ibrahim, who seems an at- 
tentive and active servant ; but it is too early to 
give an opinion. 

Mr. C- , Mr. T , and the commander paid 

us a visit. M and Dr. Loewe went to the 

governor's, and to Mr. Moore's, the British consul 
In the meantime the Austrian consul called, and 
remained a long while in conversation. He has 
resided thirty-five years in this town, and as a 


proof of the change that has taken place since 
his first arrival, he mentioned that he could not, 
at that time, shelter himself from the sun with 
an umbrella without exciting the indignation of 
the Mussulmans, who thought such a comfort 
ought to be enjoyed by the governor only, and 
their common observation was, " Look at that 
Frank with his parasol ; what a great man he 
thinks himself ! " Whereas, at the present time, 
even the labourer at work on the road carries his 
umbrella without notice. 

Our hostess and her daughter are very anxious 
that I should take a bath, to which they would 
accompany me, and that I should walk about the 
garden and the public promenade ; but I did not 
feel inclined to either. They informed us that 

Captain D , Lord P , and several other 

English gentlemen had lived in their house. The 
daughter said, she wished I would take her to 
England ; and a desire was expressed that we 
would engage the father as one of our guides to 
Palestine. Beyrout contains about two thousand 
inhabitants. We have purchased Lord Lindsay's 
tent, and three others, one for ourselves, one for 
Dr. Loewe, one for the servants, and one for 

Monday, May 13. Beyrout. Having engaged 
horses and mules for the journey, with an assist- 


ant cook, a janissary, one of the governor's sol- 
diers, muleteers, and guides, we went on horse- 
back at seven o'clock to synagogue. The rain 
and wind at first made it doubtful whether 
I could proceed ; but the weather soon after 
changed, and we made the best of our way along 
the rugged streets, the sagacious horses safely 
passing through the heaps of stones, and over the 
broken steps, greatly to our admiration of their 
caution and cleverness. 

. On arriving at the place of devotion we found 
a numerous congregation both of males and 
females. A small number of the latter wore 
turbans, ornamented with silver and gold ; neck- 
laces and bracelets, with long thick white veils 
suspended from the head to the feet. All the 
others were meanly attired, and attested the 
poverty of which they complained. They 
addressed me in Arabic, which, thanks to Dr. 
Loewe, I was enabled to understand, and in a few 
words expressed my answer. One poor woman, a 
native of Constantinople, spoke Italian. She had 
lost her husband, and was struggling hard to sup- 
port herself and four young children. She had 
therefore a fair claim to commiseration and 

How thankful I was to enjoy the privilege of 
offering up prayers in public, and of hearing my 


name mentioned at the altar, mingled with suppli- 
cations for our safe accomplishment of the difficult 
and fatiguing, though sacred undertaking which 
we have before us ! Reports continue to multiply, 
and many of them render doubtful the safety of 
our enterprise. The terrors of war, of the plague, 
and of robbers, alternately embarrass the mind. 
But we persevere, and the contract for the horses 
and mules was drawn up by Dr. Loewe, who 
made the muleteers sign it by dipping their finger 
in the ink, and affixing it to the paper. 

The governor honoured us with a visit. Ma- 
homed Bey is a mild, gentlemanly person, and 
offered his services to us in any possible manner. 
He speaks French very well, having visited both 
France and England. We availed ourselves of 
His Excellency's oifer to ask for an escort of 
soldiers to protect us on the way, and for 
letters to the different governors of Palestine. 
He complied with the latter request, but could 
only spare one soldier. 

Mr. and Mrs. T and sister called on us. 

His time is much employed in educating Arab 
children, and many speak English with fluency 
and propriety. The English missionary residing 
at Jerusalem, accompanied them. Captain C 
and Mr. T- - paid us another visit, not having 
as yet procured horses for their intended visit to 

KHALDI. 217 

Damascus, and their Arab servant having, owing 
to indisposition, proved incapable of fulfilling his 
engagement. Mr. Moore has procured us a janis- 
sary, and in the course of the evening we received 
a letter from that gentleman, stating that two 
persons had lately been robbed on the road, and 
expressing his doubt as to our safety, should we 
proceed. This caused us much uneasiness, which 
was by no means diminished at our finding it 
impossible to persuade any party to convey some 
money, which it was our wish to take with us to 
towns that had suffered from earthquake, and 
for the distressed in Jerusalem. Fuller informa- 
tion was promised in the morning, but our in- 
tended early departure must evidently be delayed. 

" In sha Alia ma essalam," was the expression 
of the Arabs in taking leave of Dr. Loewe, after 
signing the contracts. The receipts were also 
written out in Hebrew for the synagogues and 
their officers. 

It is reported that the Sultan's army has crossed 
the Euphrates. The accounts which thus con- 
tinually reach us, necessarily increase our anxiety 
respecting the transmission of the money, and we 
are at length obliged to decide upon encountering 
the danger, and conveying it ourselves. 

Tuesday, May 14. KhaldL Notwithstanding 
the unfavourable tenor of the news brought this 


morning by Mr. M 's janissary, we resolved 

to set off from Beyrout, though it was late in the 
afternoon before the money and the luggage were 

prepared. At half-past three, Mr. K having 

called and remained with us during dinner, we 
started on our route. The appearance we now 

made was not a little formidable. M , Dr. 

Loewe, and myself were mounted on horses ; 
Armstrong, Ann, the soldier, the janissary, and 
muleteers were on mules. Others being also 
employed to carry the luggage, the whole number 
amounted to seventeen. A boy whom we had 
seen at synagogue having begged permission to 
accompany us to Jerusalem, we assented, and 
Ibrahim, and his brother the cook, agree to let 
him ride by turns, on condition that he renders 
assistance, which he has already done by leading 
Ann's mule. She has never ridden before, and 
in this first attempt has already had two tumbles, 
but not to the injury of her person. 

After passing a sandy, stony road, we alighted 
on an agreeable plain, planted thickly with mul- 
berry-trees, and strewed with a plentiful variety 
of wild flowers of the richest hues. Here the 
carpets were spread, and coffee, water, and pipes, 
from the khan, were handed us by the janissary 
and Khassan, with all the grace of Eastern assi- 
duity. By this time our caravan had reached us. 

KHALDI. 219 

Several villages were in view on our left ; they 
were El Khadid, Abu Abda, Sharour, Shoyefe't. 
In the course of our journey we met some per- 
sons whom Dr. Loewe recognised as his fellow- 
sufferers in the attack of the Druses, and in whose 
company he went from Zafed to Acre. We en- 
quired of them the state of the country, and re- 
ceived a favourable answer. We then repeated 
our prayers, and Dr. Loewe, excited by the con- 
trast between his present circumstances, and those 
under which he had made his previous journey, 
poured forth an extemporary Hebrew prayer, in 
praise of the Divine glory, and of the power which 
animated the scenes by which we were surrounded. 

Half-an-hour after sunset we arrived at a place 
called Khaldi, and where the bright lustre of the 
moon and stars, reflected beautifully on the sea to 
our right, induced us to pitch our tents for .the 
night. A well of good water was a still further 
inducement, and the novelty of an encampment, 
the interest attached to the country itself, the 
brilliancy of the evening, and the stir in the little 
world comprised within the circle formed of our 
company, all contributed to excite a strange 
mingling of feelings, but among which, we trust, 
the most predominant was one of holy awe, and 
deep gratitude to the God of Israel. 

Lord Lindsay's tent was soon fixed up for us. In 


this were placed our portable bedstead, mosquito- 
netting, bags of money, and carpet bags. M 
threw himself down on the bed, fatigued with the 
first journey of three hours, though, thanks to the 
governor of Beyrout, who had presented him with 
a Turkish saddle, the ride was rendered less 
weary ing than would other wise have been the case. 
The horses had travelled extremely well, passing 
steep and rugged roads without making one false 
step. The carpets were spread in Dr. Loewe's 
tent, the mattresses forming a very easy divan. 
Lamps having been lighted, supper was announced. 
Ibrahim had prepared some very nice vermicelli 
soup and boiled fowls, and we returned thanks for 
this first and excellent repast, seated, like our 
forefathers, in the land of the patriarchs. The 
servants had neglected to bring the poles of their 
tents, and were therefore obliged to place their 
mattresses in the open air, like the Arabs. We 
find it requisite to reconcile ourselves to these 
things, for which we are amply compensated by 
the contentment expressed in the happy counte- 
nances of the attendants, all occupied in the 
camp, and promising us a blessed journey, as they 
sit cross-legged round the fire, drinking coffee, 
and smoking their Turkish pipes. 

We availed ourselves of the light of the lovely 
moon to walk round the tents, and as we looked 

KHALDI. 221 

towards the sea beheld the uncommon reflection 
of a star, which appeared for a moment like a 
bright column surmounted by a ball of fire. The 
cry of the Arabs, " Kowam ! Kowam ! " soon an- 
nounced that the preparations for the night were 
completed, and after reading the usual number of 
psalms and evening prayers, we sought repose, 
which we enjoyed as well as the snorting of the 
horses, the song of the Arabs, or the intrusion of 
insects, would permit. 

Wednesday, May 15. El Kantare. An hour 
before sunrise the preparations were commenced 
for breaking up the encampment. Ann entered 
my tent, and her droll good-tempered remarks on 
the novelty of the scene, her night's lodging, and 
our suite, could but put us in excellent humour 
even with the inconveniences to be suffered* in 
our toilet. I now found my lady 8 companion, 

presented to me some time since by A. C , a 

most useful acquisition, having no other looking- 
glass but that which it contained. A cup of coffee 
and biscuit, with the carpet spread outside the 
tent, were in readiness, and while the servants 
prepared the luggage for the mules we partook 
of the refreshment. This occupied but a short 
time, and we were soon on our way, the soldier 
and janissary, armed with pistols, canes, and 
swords, preceding us. It was the first time I had 


ever carried a brace of pistols, and even now my 
horse had a better right to the honour than myself. 
I can hardly say which I admired most, the cases 
of scarlet and gold embroidery, or the weapons. 
Fervently do I hope that my courage will not be 
put to the test in the use of them. I fear my 
military tactics would not be so well admired as 
my equestrian dexterity, honoured though I be 
with the title of general. 

We proceeded en route, repeating, as we went, 
our prayers and psalms, and rejoicing to make 
resound, as we best could, the wild and solitary 
scenes with the praises of our God. The sweet 
rich flowers and shrubs which adorned the rocks 
and valleys, filling the air with the most delicious 
odour, were lovely monitors of the benevolence 
of the great Creator. 

Having arrived at a khan, called by the Arabs 
Khan-el-Posta, five or six Egyptian women 
passed us, the wives of the soldiers keeping guard 
there. Our road conducting us through scenes of 
the most enchanting kind, and the breezes from 
the sea contributing greatly to the coolness of 
the atmosphere, we proceeded on our way with 
feelings of deep-felt enjoyment. 

In the course of our journey we passed a woman 
seated on the road-side, with baskets of mul- 
berries and bread, called ragheef, like crumpets, 

ZIDON. 223 

On asking her if she would let us have some of 
the former, she immediately handed them to 
us, but would receive nothing in return. They 
were no larger than blackberries, nor of a much 
better flavour. This gift is made by way of ex- 
piation for any sin committed, or on the death 
of a friend, and is called by the Arabs, el ehb. 

The district seems blessed with fertility. May 
peace be in its borders ! 

How, indeed, can I express my feelings in the 
land of the tribe of Zebulun ! How does the 
blessing of Jacob forcibly recur to the thoughts ! 
" Zebulun shall dwell at the haven of the sea, 
and he shall be for an haven of ships; and his 
border shall be unto Zidon.' 

At two o'clock we entered Zidon. We were 
met by a number of our brethren, who conducted 
us to the tomb of Zebulun, at the entrance of the 
mosque leading to it. Having descended from 
our horses, we entered the sacred edifice, and re- 
peated our prayers at the shrine of the son of 
Jacob. To say that I was impressed with the 
sanctity of the place would very inadequately 
express my feelings. Any place of burial excites 
some sentiment of awe, but the antiquity of that 
in which we were now standing, the associations 
connected with the name and lineage of him 
whose remains are here deposited, and the lively 


sense of our own present dependence on the 
especial mercy of the Almighty, filled our hearts 
with emotions to be likened to no ordinary sen- 
sations, even of a religious kind. 

On taking leave of our brethren we expressed 
a hope that we should see them again on our 
return. The Arab at the gate was well pleased 

with the bakshish which M presented to him. 

We passed some beautiful gardens, rich with the 
blossoms of the pomegranate just forming into 
fruit, and clusters of figs. 

Soon after we reached the river Damur, which 
we crossed by a steep stone bridge, and at length 
stopped at a village called El Baruk, where we 
remained for the night, our tents and luggage 
having preceded us, guarded by Saad-Eddin. 

Thursday, May 16. Megiadi. The events of 
last evening tended more particularly to demon- 
strate the Divine mercy towards us, and to call 
forth our devotion and gratitude. Having sent 
forward one of the muckarries to apprise Saad- 
Eddin of our intention of remaining during the 
night at El Baruk, being too fatigued to proceed 
to Kasmia, and to bring back with him one of the 
tents, the man returned in the course of an hour, 
with his legs bleeding and vestments torn, weep- 
ing, and saying that he had been attacked by 
some soldiers, who wanted to take his donkey 


from him, and had beaten him in a severe manner. 
Hhasan, our own soldier, suspecting this to be an 
invention, created by the man's fears of travelling 
alone, on what was considered a dangerous part 
of the road, made use of his dabous, and in true 
Arabian style exercised the authority of office, 
till the poor fellow screamed like one being 

As we lay on a rug beside the cottage, we were 
alarmed at the noise, and thought the host was, 
with Turkish despotism, admonishing either his 
wives or children. We had no alternative but to 
remain during the night without bed, or any other 
shelter from a heavy dew and the nocturnal atmo- 
sphere, than such as was furnished by the cloaks 
and umbrellas which we happened to have with 
us, it being considered not safe to enter the house. 
Dr. Loewe and Armstrong remained up during 
the night, guarding us with pistols in hand, and 
the attendants were equally vigilant in case of 
attack by banditi. At midnight the black 
slave, who had been despatched, returned, having 
faithfully executed his mission. He stated that 
Saad-Eddin had arrived in safety, with the money 
and luggage, at Kasmia, and that a tent should 
be pitched, and breakfast in readiness against our 
arrival. This information allayed our fears, and 
was more satisfactory than was anticipated. 


This was some compensation for our uneasy 
night, and the anxiety produced by the state of 
the country, our locality, and the adventure of tha 
muckarri. An hour before sunrise, after our 
usual indulgence of a cup of coffee and a biscuit, 
of which our Arab attendants approve, as well as 
ourselves, we were again a cJieval, Hhasan leading 
the way. 

In about three hours we arrived, unmolested, 
at Kasmia, delighted to meet in safety, after 
the alarms and disquietude of the past night. 
Being again refreshed, we continued our route 
through Bourg el Howa, thence to Abbassia, and 
then descended a steep hill to the valley Vady 
Djilon, the richest and most beautiful I had ever 
beheld happy to reach the place of repose for 

the night, and most thankful, though M was 

unwell and much fatigued. 

Friday, May 17. Zafed. Most anxious to 
arrive in time for sabbath, we set off at an early 
hour. M fatigued, but solicitous about pass- 
ing the Pentecost holidays at a city in the Holy 
Land, though unable to arrive at Jerusalem. At 
a plain called Nahr Vady Gish, near a spring of 
good water, we stopped to repose and take some 
refreshment. Protected from the sun by a cir- 
cular rock, with trees on either side, our carpets 
were spread, Ibrahim preparing the soup and 

ZAFED. 227 

chickens. During our repast we perceived two 
gentlemen approaching us. They proved to be 
deputies from Zafed, with letters from Rabbi 
Abraham Dob, Awaritsch, and others, welcoming 
and complimenting us in the most enthusiastic 
terms. These gentlemen had travelled all night 
for the purpose of expressing their delight at our 
arrival, and delivering their letters from the chief 
Hhakham. They presented us with two bottles 
of their wine, which we found very salutary. In 
the mean time some other travellers approached 
us, and expressed their pleasure at seeing us in 
their country, in terms equally enthusiastic and 
complimentary. They were on their way to St. 
Petersburg. Next arrived a foot Arab messen- 
ger from Tiberias, bringing letters from Rabbi 
Israel and another gentleman, inviting us to their 
house. The former stated, that he would have 
come himself had he not been prevented by ill- 
ness. We then wrote answers to letters we had 
received and continued our route over mountains, 
rocks, and plains. Within two hours of Zafed 
two of the Portuguese community met us on the 
road, and delivered an address, which was suit- 
ably answered. We were then met by a great 
number of the congregation, both young and old, 
rich and poor, with dancing and shouting of 
praise, clapping of hands, sounding the Darra- 
Q 2 


buka, and singing. These were honours far sur- 
passing our expectation or imagination. At the 
sight of the hill, on the summit of which stood the 
town of Zafed, how did our hearts expand with 
joy and thankfulness ! but the apparently never- 
ending ascent somewhat diminished the delight, 

my dear M being almost exhausted with 

fatigue. Every moment we turned to look at the 
sun it was still high, and we had every en- 
couragement for exertion. All our muckarries 
and janissaries were now en avant, forming, in 
single file, a pretty considerable number. At 
length we could observe the tops of the houses, 
covered with men, women and children. Some 
guns were fired joyfully our people received 
permission to return the salute. All being armed, 
the pistols and guns were fired off one after the 
other. The Rev. Abraham Dob and other Hha- 
khamim then came part of the way to welcome us. 
One of the others, less aged, descended from his 
steed, and this highly respected and venerable 
rabbi, after addressing us in warm and affec- 
tionate terms, was assisted to remount, and con- 
ducted back by his friends. Dr. Loewe, who was 
recognised by numberless friends, from last year's 
acquaintance, was almost overpowered by their 
salutations and welcome. All the inhabitants 
had collected together at the entrance of the town, 

ZAFED. 229 

or rather the ruins, for the visitation of the late 
earthquake had indeed worked desolation, though 
at this juncture all seemed redolent of joy and 
hope. We entered a house appropriated for our 
reception, amid the gaze of veiled females, whose 
faces, however, were sufficiently discernible to 
show that beauty had not been sparing of her 

Saturday, May 18. Zafed Thank God my 

dear M is rather improved from his night's 

rest, though he does not find himself sufficiently 
renovated to leave his bed to-day, having still a 
pain in his limbs, the result probably of cold 
caught at El Baruk, when sleeping in the open 

Our house, a new building, is handsomer than 
one could expect, from the poverty of the inhabi- 
tants, whose resources have been exhausted, as 
well by an increased taxation as from the earth- 
quake, when most of the houses were swallowed 
up, many lives lost, and property to a large 
amount buried in the ruins. The following year 
the Druses, with unmerciful rapacity, completed 
the ruin of those who had rescued a portion of 
their property from the late visitation, and not 
content with the fruits of their plunder, beat the 
poor unprotected inhabitants to that degree that 
many were left cripples for the remainder of their 


lives sorrows which they suffer with more than 
imaginable patience, consoled by the reflection 
that they are in the Holy Land, and may cherish 
the hope of a happier futurity. They are sus- 
tained by contributions from other countries, 
and pass their lives principally in study and 
religious worship ; but as their number increases 

and their means diminish, M contemplates 

proposing to them some mode of industry for 
their youth, whose incapacity and disinclination 
might render them unable to do justice to a holy 
profession. The cultivation of the land appears 
a fit occupation, if protection could be procured 
for property.* 

Being solicited to attend the opening of a new 
synagogue this evening, it being the Pentecost 

holiday, my dear M requested I would go, 

there being also a very old and venerated sepher 
to be presented by the widow of the late Hha- 
kham to whom it belonged. I accordingly com- 
plied ; Madame S accompanied me. 

The synagogue was lighted in a brilliant man- 
ner, and decorated with festoons of laurel-leaves. 
I had a seat opposite the ark. After prayers the 
whole congregation walked a short distance to- 
wards the residence of the donor, for the sepher, 
which Rabbi Dob was then seen carrying under a 
* See Appendix. 

ZAFED. 231 

white canopy, attended by a concourse of people, 
singing, dancing, and clapping their hands, keep- 
ing time with the psalmody. A wax taper was 
handed to me, and I was conducted under the 
canopy, immediately behind the venerable Rabbi, 
who carried the sacred scroll, while the crowd 
which followed continued their dancing, singing, 
and clapping of hands. I trembled amidst this 
most novel, imposing, and joyous scene, lest I 
might set fire to the canopy, by the flaring taper 
which I carried in my hand, or drop any wax on 
the white silk, a spot or two being already visi- 
ble on the robes of the benevolent and kind- 
hearted R. Abraham Dob. 

The procession was conducted round our house 

in order that M might enjoy the gratifying 

sight. He was seated at the window, being 
warned of its approach by the shouts and joyful 
voices of the people. Having paused for a few 
seconds we returned to the synagogue in the same 
manner, and the se'pher was deposited in the ark, 
while appropriate prayers were chanted, followed 
by hymns and clapping of hands, and the dance 
as before. How was I struck with the manners 
of the people, whose joys, as well as anxieties, 
are all the offspring of devotional associations, 
and whose songs are addressed to the Deity alone ! 
1 felt the honour of being distinguished by them ; 


sitting near the ark and continuing to hold the 
wax taper to the Hhakhamim. The whole might 
truly be termed the rejoicings of the law. It 
was the beauty of holiness in the midst of 

Sunday, May 19. Zafed. M , thank 

God, being recovered from his fatigue, went to 
the Portuguese synagogue, a respectable edifice, 
built since the earthquake. It is supported by 
arches but devoid of all ornament, the wooden 
forms and benches being neither painted nor 
whitewashed. A number of swallows' nests 
were seen on the roof, and a mind awake to 
such meditations would recall the words of the 
Psalmist, " Yea, the sparrow hath found her 
an house, and the swallow a nest for herself, 
where she may lay her young, even thine altars, 
Lord of hosts, my King and my God ! " 

The principal places were again- assigned us, 
Hhakham Mizrakhi having his seat near ours. I 
observed no seats for ladies in the synagogue. In 
that visited last night they were partitioned off 
by a close trellis-work. After M had car- 
ried the sdpher I had the honour of decorating it. 

Breakfast being ended we walked in the olive 
plantations behind our residence, attended, as 
usual by Hhasan and Saad-Eddin, with their 
large silver-headed canes. We had the carpets 

ZAFED. 233 

spread there, and while seated in earnest converse 
two Bedouins approached and attempted to join 
in the conversation; but we, with all the stern- 
ness of Eastern severity, denied even a look, much 
more a word. They then made a similar effort 
among the attendants, but with little more 
success. Three other intruders soon followed 
and we then thought it advisable to return to 
the house. 

The visit paid by the Druses to this city last 
year was not yet forgotten, the smart and the 
scar still keeping it fresh in the minds of many ; 
and the accounts, so full of distressing circum- 
stances, being sufficient to render travellers 
having to traverse the road to Jerusalem, jealous 
of their safety. 

We received visits from the heads of both the 
congregations. This occupied a great portion of 
the day, and the Moussellim, Abd-el-Khalim, sent 
to say, that if agreeable he would pay his respects. 
He came, attended by the Cadi and several other 
Mussulmans. Cibouks, coffee, sherbet, &c., were 
prepared, and as soon as they had taken their 
seats, some on the divan, and some on the floor, 
our accommodation being on a limited scale, but 
precedency and etiquette, of such consequence in 
the East, being strictly observed, the tobacco 
spread its fumes round the room, and the coffee 


was sipped with all due solemnity ; compliments 
and conversation filling up the intervals. The 
state of the country, its capabilities, and the 
numerous objects of interest which it presents, 
afforded fruitful subjects for remark. His excel- 
lency said that he was acquainted with many of 
our works on sacred history, and was pleased to 
add that he felt the value of our visit to Zafed, 
and that he hoped that as Queen Esther had 
delivered her people from destruction, so the 
Hebrews of the present day, suffering in this 
land under such accumulated distresses, would be 
freed by our efforts. This was excess even of 
eastern compliment, and we could only lament 
the insufficiency of the means and power to which 
it was intended to apply. 

Another interesting visit was paid us, and that 
by Moostafa Mahhmood, a Mussulman who had 
bestowed the greatest kindness on the Israelites 
during the visitation of the earthquake, and even 
to the risk of his own life. He gave them nearly 
the whole of his property, and fought for them 
when attacked by the Druses. Every mouth 
uttered his praises, and expressed regret that no 
means existed for testifying the gratitude of the 
afflicted people in a more substantial way. But 
the benevolent heart has the best of all rewards 
in its own feelings. 

ZAFED. 235 

Wednesday, May 22. Zafed. The whole 
morning was occupied in receiving the numerous 
persons of all ages, male and female, whose dis- 
tresses urged them to apply for relief ; and pain- 
ful indeed it was to behold the many objects 
reduced to so low a state of poverty. It was 
found necessary to station guards at each door, 
to prevent too great a throng entering at one 
time, and the heat and dust being extremely 
oppressive, it was also requisite to sprinkle water 
over the floor of the apartment several times. 

At about three o'clock M came into my 

apartment to take some refreshment, the sitting- 
room not being very agreeable after the presence 
of so many persons. In a quarter of an hour the 
crowd returned, as well as the two secretaries 
who admitted the other persons for relief. May 
the Almighty grant that the plan which my dear 
husband contemplates may succeed, so that these 
poor creatures may be enabled to gain an inde- 
pendent livelihood, instead of relying on the 
assistance of other countries, whose contributions 
are so precarious ! They all appear to be willing, 
active and talented, so that we may reasonably 
anticipate success, should a plan be well organised 
for their employment. 

This pleasing, though fatiguing occupation 
finished, we took a ride to one of the most inte- 


resting spots in the vicinity of Zafed. This was 
called " Bet Hamedrash Shel Shem Vaeber," and 
by the Arabs, ." The Place of Mourning ;" tradi- 
tion representing that there Jacob went to mourn 
for Joseph. It is held by the Arabs in such 
reverence for its sanctity, that they have hitherto 
prohibited its being approached by any but 
persons of their own faith. So said the sheikh 
who had the key ; but he added, advancing 
towards us, " I have heard of your worth and 
great dignity, and am therefore come myself to 
offer my services." 

Being accompanied by many persons anxious 
for research, we availed ourselves of the sheikh's 
offer. Having arrived at the foot of the hill, he 
uttered with great ceremony, " Hada el matrakh." 
" This is the spot ! " We then entered a spacious 
enclosure of buildings, which appeared to consist 
of abodes for the living, as well as of those for the 
dead. Some modern tombs struck our attention. 
They bore long Arabic inscriptions, which on 
examination were found to contain the greater 
part of the Fdthhah, and the name of a certain Ali, 
the date of whose death, however, could not be 
seen, the tombstone being sunk too deep in the 
earth. Dr. Loewe examined the inscriptions on 
two other tombs, but could not discover the date. 
They bore the usual words, " 0, Eternal ! Ever- 

ZAFED. 237 

lasting ! " The tombs cut out of the solid rock, 
were similar, he said, to those which he had seen 
at the tomb of the Sanhedrin at Jerusalem. Seve- 
ral rooms, still in good preservation, were, we 
concluded, habitations for the living. Dr. Loewe 
entered some small openings in the rock, but saw 
nothing except a spacious apartment. At this 
moment the sheikh exclaimed, " Look around ! 
Look around ! " for that was the place where 
Jacob wept bitterly for his son! And such, 
indeed, is the tradition. A piece of wood was 
presented me as a memento of the sacred spot. 

We had yet time for another hour's ride, and 
it was proposed that we should visit the tomb of 
Rabbi Kruspedai. Our guides, however, led us 
by a precipitous road up the ascents of one of the 
mountains of Hor-Hahar, as they called it, whence 
we caught a sight of the Jordan, and of scenery 
equally beautiful and magnificent, but, at the same 
time, of the terrors of the path, whereby we were 
to descend into the valley, and which were suffi- 
ciently formidable to induce us to tread the intri- 
cate path on foot, rather than trust to our horses. 
We reached the happy valley in safety, but the 
time which had been employed in the ascent 
and descent obliged us to leave unaccomplished 
the design of visiting the tomb of Kruspedai. 

Thursday, May 23. Zafed. About nine o'clock 


the horses, ready saddled, were at the door, and 
we set off for Djermek, attended by six of the 
inhabitants of the town, one of them riding a 
beautiful Arabian mare, followed by its foal. The 
gentlemen here are all famous for their horse- 
manship, and ride up and down the mountains, 
and along stony and difficult passes with the 
greatest courage. The soldier, the janissary, 
Armstrong, Ibrahim, and muckarries formed our 
suite. The first part of the way being up a 
steep, narrow, and stony path, on the edge of a 
precipice, I was fearful we might not be able to 
accomplish our object, but the road widening, 
and being sheltered by shrubs of the most beau- 
tiful foliage and fragrance, our courage increased, 

and M proved himself one of the best 

cavaliers. On reaching the summit we beheld 
the Lake of Tiberias, and, still advancing, 
obtained a view of the Jordan, and then 
ascended the lower range of Mount Senir, having 
Hermon on the left, the eye resting with a reve- 
rential feeling on the caverns and tombs which 
now appeared in sight, the abodes of the 
learned, the quiet resting-places of the righteous 
of past ages. The son of Kabbi Israel Back was 
now seen riding .over the hill to meet us. He 
informed us that his father was expecting our 
arrival with delight, and trusted that we should 

ZAFED. 239 

attend the ceremony of naming his son, to whom 
we had been invited to stand godfather and 

The gentlemen who accompanied us gave a 
description of the land over which we passed, 
and displayed some knowledge of agriculture, 
but which, for want of protection, they have no 
opportunity of advantageously pursuing. On 
reaching the abode of the worthy Rabbi Israel, 
a numerous family, consisting of three genera- 
tions, came out to meet us, and saluted us with 
the graceful and friendly salaam of the East ; 
the females, who were very pretty, and the 
children, kissing my hands before I dismounted. 
The ceremony was performed soon after our 
arrival, and expressions of fervent friendship 
well supplied the place of luxury and comfort. 
The smiles of the infant rewarded the mother, 
who was surrounded by many female friends, 
well dressed, and adorned with numerous orna- 
ments, though the chamber was of the humblest 
kind, and nearly unfurnished. 

The fete being over, we prepared to take leave 
of Djermek, amid the blessings and kind wishes 
of the ladies, and other branches of the family. 
Some gentlemen attended us on our way back, 
and the famous Well of Barak being in the 
vicinity, they pressed us to visit it, and taste of 


its waters, but the distance, and want of time, 
obliged us to refuse. 

Friday, May 24. Zafed. Immediately after 
breakfast, the poor were admitted to receive the 
portion assigned to each individual, which was 
a Spanish dollar to every man and woman, and 
a half to every child below the age of thirteen 
years. Orphans and children above thirteen 
years received a dollar each. The secretary of 
the Portuguese synagogue, and also that of the 
German congregation, were present to write the 
name of each applicant on a ticket, according to 

the respective lists.* M and Dr. Loewe 

were seated at separate tables, my dear M 
to present the money, Dr. Loewe to examine the 
lists and question the people. They were 
admitted, thirty at a time, by one door, and 
passed out at another. Armstrong, the janissary, 
the soldier, Ibrahim, his brother and the rest of 
the attendants, were stationed on the outside to 
preserve order. 

Vinegar and water being occasionally sprinkled 
on the floor, and the people being prevented from 
pressing too forward, the business of the day 
went on satisfactorily, except that regret was 
necessarily excited at the sight of so much dis- 
tress. Most of the children were handsome 
* See end of Appendix. 

ZAFED. 241 

This could not be said of the women ; but the 
distress and privations they had suffered were 
more than enough to have blighted their early 
bloom. Those of the better class are generally 
handsome, and the men are active and willing to 
work, nor would they be less ready to defend 
themselves against the attacks to which they are 
subject had they a leader, and a proper supply of 
arms. We finished this interesting day by going 
to the new synagogue. 

Saturday, May 25. Zafed. This has been a 
most anxious day, though a day of rest. We 
have learned that the plague rages in Jerusalem. 
A gentleman who arrived yesterday from Tibe 
rias, asserts that he has received a letter from 
the Holy City, stating that, within the last few 
days, three persons had died of the plague, and 
that great apprehensions were entertained re- 
specting war. We begin to fear that we may be 
prevented from reaching the Holy City, and from 
relieving personally the miseries of the people. 
But we intend sending a letter of inquiry to Mr. 

A to ascertain more clearly the fact, and 

whether quarantine is required on leaving the 
city. We attended morning prayers at the Ger- 
man synagogue, and after breakfast walked out, 
and had our carpet and chair brought up the ad- 
joining hill, and placed under the beautiful olive - 


trees ; but we had not long enjoyed the salubrity 
of the air and romantic scenery, when two Druses 
on horseback passed us, and soon after returned 
on foot, and making their salaam, placed them- 
selves near where we were seated. We were ad- 
vised to receive them very coolly. They then 
took their station behind a tree, and entered into 
conversation with our janissary, who was in at- 
tendance. Rabbi Samuel Helir and Dr. Loewe, 
who had been so great a sufferer by these people 
last year, thought it better that we should return 
to the house. We heard that two others of 
the fierce-looking mountaineers soon joined them. 
This looked rather suspicious. In the afternoon we 
went to hear a funeral oration at the Portuguese 
synagogue, and saw the new place of devotion, 
which is not yet finished. The gratification ex- 
cited by the beauty of the situation is somewhat 
diminished by the fear that, standing as the 
structure does on the brink of the hill, the site 
of the former building, it may crumble beneath 
the power of some future earthquake. 

We attended evening prayers at the German 
synagogue ; and it was requested, that those 
widows and orphans whose names were down 
on the list, but who had not received a dona- 
tion, should come to-morrow morning for that 
purpose. On our return home, we were met by 

ZAFED. 243 

E. B. Y , one of the learned gentlemen who 

had met us in the fields of Kasmia. 

Being close to his house, he urged us to pay 
him a visit ; but we declined, fearful lest others, 
whom our time would not allow of our visiting, 
might be offended. Our soldier, who with the 
janissary always attends us, thinking his enthu- 
siastic manner savoured of intrusion, rudely 
pushed the old man away, for which he after- 
wards received from M a just reproof. No 

umbrage, however, was taken, for the venerable 

gentleman paid us a visit in the evening. M 

made him a present, and sent also handsome 
donations yesterday to the Hhakhamim of the 
different congregations, with a Hebrew letter 
addressed to each. 

It was past twelve before the letters and 
papers requisite to be prepared in answer to Mr. 

L , and to the communications from Tiberias, 

were finished, and some other matters, in refer- 
ence to the sufferers from the earthquake. 

Before retiring to rest, we threw a stone 
against the tents of the guards, to ascertain if 
they were awake, and on the watch. Saad- 
Eddin, Hhasan, and others immediately came 
to discover the cause, and for their vigilance 
received a glass of the best wine. 

We have had the pistols reloaded, and placed 
R 2 


in our rooms, in case of a surprise from the 

Sunday, May 26. Thanks to the Almighty we 
passed the night without any further annoyance 
than the barking of dogs and troublesome insects. 
We have been during the day entirely occupied 
in completing the distributions to our distressed 

Monday, May 27. Tiberias. From Zafed. 
How can I describe the events of this day, or 
how express my feelings of gratitude towards 
Him who has supported us through this difficult 
journey, in health and safety, and allowed us to 
receive so many proofs of honour and respect in a 
land rendered sacred by the Lord's appointment, 
by the great and the learned to whom it has 
given birth ; and where they lie interred ; and 
by the love and the presence of those eminently 
pious men, who still consider that the greatest 
happiness of existence is the study of that law 
with which the Omnipotent vouchsafed to enrich 
His people ? 

We went to Rabbi Abraham Dob's synagogue 
at seven o'clock to morning prayers. 

There was a numerous congregation of learned 
men, and they allowed me the honour of deco- 
rating the se'pher. Every person who was called 
up ottered a blessing, and a prayer for our pro- 

ZAFED. 245 

sperity and happiness, and for that of the rest of 
our party. After prayers the Rabbi gave us his 
blessing, as preparatory to our leaving the town. 
We were then invited into his house, where his 
wife had prepared a breakfast, consisting of 
various cakes, coffee, and wine. Many persons 
were present, and many new petitions and 

requests were made. M gave a present to the 

people of Pekee-in, studying the law in the college, 
and also one to be divided among the other 
Hhakhamim of Zafed, in addition to what was 
previously given. He also now wrote the first 
three words of the sepher, which he has ordered ; 
and the persons present were treated with wine, 
cake, &c., as is customary on like occasions. I 
hope it will be well written, and that my dear 
M - may enjoy the sight of it for many 

The wife of Rabbi Abraham Dob was unceasing 
in her kind attentions and expressions towards 
us, and the blessings of the venerable Rabbi, with 
those of his flock, accompanied us to our dwell- 
ing, where we proceeded to make the necessary 
arrangements for our departure : this took place 
about eleven o'clock. A concourse of persons 
would have accompanied us for some distance, 
but for our entreaties that they would spare 
themselves so much fatigue. 


We quitted Zafed with gratitude to Providence, 
for having kindly enabled us to bestow some 
relief on a suffering and afflicted people. 

At a short distance forward, the beautiful Lake 
of Tiberias, part of which some of our suite 
called Bee'r Miriam, presented itself to view. A 
delicious valley then appeared to our right, ex- 
tending to the famous village Akbara, mentioned 
in the Talmud. After a continued ascent for 
some distance we began to descend, and noticed 
to our left the rock called Akebi, in which are 
extensive caves, where the inhabitants took 
refuge during a former attack on Zafed by the 
Druses. The rock is also famous for its number 
of bees, and when we witnessed the honey 
exuding from it and filling the air with its frag- 
rance, how forcibly did the words of the Psalmist 
recur to our minds : " And with honey out of the 
rock should I have satisfied thee." We then 
passed the cross-roads, of which the right leads to 
Acre, the left to Damascus; and soon after several 
villages and valleys filled with luxuriant corn, 
interspersed with fig, olive, mulberry, and pome- 
granate trees, covered with bright blossoms, 
delighted the sight. On the road lay some pieces 
of stone, which our muckarries amused them- 
selves with striking; the sound returned was 
like that of a fine bell ; verifying the saying of 


scripture : " A land whose stones are iron, and 
out of whose hills thou mayest dig brass." 

After passing a rich plain called Megdel, 
where some English succeeded in planting indigo, 
and coffee, found to excel that of Mocha, we 
were commencing our earnest prayers to the 
Almighty, supplicating His blessing on us, and 
our fellow-creatures, when, all at once, the sound 
of the darrabuka, or drum, and of the flute, or 
samr, with thousands of joyous shouts reached 
our ears. Crowds of persons immediately 
appeared in sight, exclaiming, "Live the pro- 
tector ! Long live the protector !" 

Rabbi S , the head of the Volynien con- 
gregation, then descended from his horse, and 
delivered an address in Hebrew, which was 
replied to in that language. The chorus was 
then repeated with sounds of music, singing, clap- 
ping of hands, and dancing. We were next met 
by the chiefs of the Spanish congregation, when 
an address was again delivered, to which a reply 
was given in Hebrew, Arabic, and German, that 
all the gentlemen present might understand our 
expressions of gratitude for the Divine mercy, 
and for the manner in which our humble efforts 
to do good had been received and honoured. 

At some distance further, the moussellim, 
mounted on a beautiful Arabian horse, and accom- 


panied by many his suite, arrived to welcome 
us. He delivered a long Arabic speech, express- 
ing his great happiness at our visit to that sacred 
city, the source and centre of peace and blessed- 
ness. At the conclusion of his address he offered 
us his house, horses, servants, and the whole town. 
A correspondingly complimentary reply was 
given in Arabic ; and thus, during the perform- 
ance of some admirable feats of horsemanship, 
by the attendants of the moussellim, amid 
shoutings, music, clapping of hands, and dancing, 
we entered Tiberias, where torch-bearers and 
crowds of females awaited our arrival. 

Tuesday, May 28. Tiberias. I passed a 
tolerably tranquil night, considering the heat of 
the weather and the inconvenience of an Arab 
house. Soon after breakfast the grandson of 
Dr. Herschell and his brother-in-law came to 
see us. They were followed by the chief Hha- 
khamim, the heads of the congregation, and all 
the officers of the German congregations. Their 
expressions of satisfaction at our arrival were 
ardent and enthusiastic. 

The governor, or moussellim, the cddi, or judge. 
Sheikh Said-Allah, and suite also arrived at the 
same time ; the former, a very fine looking man. 
He stated that he was delighted at our presence, 
that he prayed that we might remain in the 


country, and that the sufferings with which God 
had been pleased to visit them, in the late earth- 
quake would yield to the hope, which dawned 
upon them through our arrival. To this he 
added many other compliments, offering to do 
every thing in his power for our accommodation, 
and saying, that a fete was to be held to-morrow, 
in consequence of our visit. Sherbet, sweet- 
meats, and coffee, were then handed round with 
Eastern ceremony. 

The next announcement introduced to our pre- 
sence the Hhakhamim of the Portuguese nation, 
with elders and officers of their congregation. 

A proposal similar to that made at Zafed was 
spoken of, in order to ascertain their inclination 
to become agriculturists, leaving such as had the 
desire and ability for such pursuits to devote 
themselves to study. General satisfaction was 
expressed at the suggestion of a plan which 
might enable them to obtain an honourable in- 
dependence. Energy and talent, they said, 
existed. Nothing was needed but protection 
and encouragement. May the design prosper !* 
It was also requested that lists might be made 
out of the number of males, females, and children 
under thirteen, and of widows and orphans. 

The governor sent us as a present a beautiful 
* See Appendix. 


gazelle, only a week old. We hope to take it 
with us to England. Many reports still prevail 
of the plague in Jerusalem and its vicinity. We 
inquired of the messenger who brought letters, 
and found that these reports were but too true. 
He is himself now in quarantine. We have, in 
consequence, sent one of the governor's soldiers 
with a letter to Mr. Young, the British consul, 
and another to the chief Rabbi, in the holy city. 

We received visits from the chiefs of Zafed, 
who came all the way to show us honour. The 
governor sent to invite me to visit his ladies on 
the lake, and to go to the bath with them, and 
then to partake of a sheep which was killed 
according to his order, by our people, for the 

Wednesday, May 29. Tiberias. The thermo- 
meter last night was at 80 ; this morning at 
76. Our dining-room is arched at each end, and 
in the centre is a fountain open to the sky. 
Around this fountain many of Signor Abuelafia's 
family had their mattresses placed, and thus slept 
in the open air. I did not rest very soundly, but 
heard throughout the night the crowing of the 
fowls, which seemed, as of old, to keep strict 
reckoning of the watches. 

At half- past four we arose, and went on horse- 
back to the baths erected by Ibrahim Pasha, on 


the banks of the lake. The water is supplied 
by a hot spring from the mountain at the back. 
These baths are handsomely constructed, being of 
white marble, and floored with the same material. 
There is one sufficiently capacious to contain a 
hundred persons, and two small ones for private 
use, with a room attached to each. We greatly 
enjoyed the luxury of a bath. Mine was of tepid 
heat. Sherbet, coffee, and cibouks were in the 
meantime prepared by the attendants. 

In the course of our excursion we passed some 
fragments of handsome columns strewed along 
the ground, and a once strong fortress, partly de- 
stroyed by the earthquake, added to the severer 
features of the scene. 

The houses in the neighbourhood of the town 
are in a desolate condition. Many were totally 
destroyed by the earthquake, and have been re- 
placed by mud cottages, the stones and other 
portions of the fallen buildings lying scattered 
about the streets. Happily for the unfortunate 
people, the country is rich and fertile. Among 
the more striking of its wild and picturesque 
productions, rises the prickly-pear, gaining a 
gigantic growth, and forming a species of defence, 
which it would require a bold besieger to despise. 

Soon after breakfast, I received a message 
from the ladies of the Moussellim, stating that 


they would be happy to pay me a visit. They 
came accompanied by a black male attendant, 
two female servants, and a black girl, a slave. 
The three ladies appeared to be from twenty to 
twenty-five years of age. They were closely 
veiled, but on entering the apartment the white 
veil was thrown aside, and replaced by a Ban- 
daneh handkerchief, loosely thrown over the 
head, which was ornamented with gold coins and 
other trinkets. Their hands were tattooed, and 
their nails stained with hhen'na. Mine not being 
tinged like theirs attracted their notice. They 
took hold of my hands, and expressed their ad- 
miration of my dress. I, of course, complimented 
theirs in return. 

With Eastern generosity, they had brought 
with them a fine fat sheep, and I presented each 
of them with a Roman ring, which seemed greatly 
to delight them. They would not seat them- 
selves near a gentleman ; the only ones present 

were M and Dr. Loewe, the latter acting as 

interpreter. Their conversation was very ani- 
mated, and they urged me several times to visit 
them, and go with them to the bath, and in a 
boat on the lake, but I did not accept the invita- 
tion. They informed us that the governor was 
about to marry another lady who could read, 
and would therefore be able to teach them. This 


idea appeared to afford them no small satisfaction, 
and a confirmation was hence given of the 
opinion expressed by Mr. Buckingham in his 
lecture, that a plurality of wives was agreeable 
to Turkish ladies. I could not regard the asser- 
tion, when originally heard as correct ; but the 
conversation of to-day has gone far to modify 
my notions on the subject. The ladies men- 
tioned that the governor never made any differ- 
ence between them : that if he gave a present 
to one, he gave a similar one to the others, and 
that they lived very happily together. They 
wore coloured worsted socks of their own knit- 
ting, and which it took them six days to com- 
plete. The Moussellim, they informed us, had 
spoken of me in a very complimentary manner. 
He was now in the country collecting soldiers for 
the Pasha. 

The afternoon and evening were occupied in 
seeing the principal persons belonging to the 
Portuguese, the German, and Russian congrega- 
tions, in arranging their lists, receiving letters, 
and holding consultations as to the practicability 
of cultivating the lands. Many approved of the 
plan, and seemed to have a clear idea of the 
vast benefits which would attend its success. 

Anxious to lose no time, we distributed in the 
evening our donations to the applicants on the 


Russian list, and arrangements were concluded for 

Thursday, May 30. Tiberias. We went to 
synagogue, and were accompanied by Signer 
Abuelafia. The building is small, but pleasantly 
situated on the very borders of the lake. Shortly 
after breakfast the business of the day com- 
menced with the German list. Several letters 
were received from persons requesting to be 
employed in agriculture. This is most satis- 
factory, as it affords a hope that the people 
may be found ready to cultivate industrious 

After the Germans had received the allotted 
present, all the poor Arabs were called in, and 
each was presented with a gift. The floor was 
well washed after their departure, and before the 
Portuguese party was introduced. No slight de- 
gree of trouble and vexation was caused, as had 
been the case at Zafed, by the omission of names, 
and some were found reluctant to appear at all. 
The wives of persons of the more respectable 
class of sufferers did not appear with the others, 
but came in two parties in the evening, and ex- 
pressed their gratitude for what was done. It 
was nine o'clock before we finished our labours, 
but the end was better than the beginning. 

The fat sheep was killed to-day, and part, ac- 


cording to the law, given to the priest with an 
appropriate prayer. See Deuteronomy, xviii. 3. 
Friday, May 31. Tiberias. I could obtain 
but little sleep during the night : the gnawing 
of rats and mice, and the attacks of various in- 
sects, particularly of musquitoes, sadly tearing 
into shreds the pleasant veil of slumber. The 
singing of birds aroused me from a short doze, 
into which I had fallen, and at half -past four a 
nice cup of coffee was brought into our room. 
Having dressed, we took a delightful ride on 
horseback, and passed the fortress, the baths, and 
the tomb of Rabbi Johhanan Ben Zakay, near 
to which are those of Rab Ammi and Rab Assi, 
and opposite the first, that of the author of the 
famous Sheney Loukhot Haberit ; while higher 
up the field, towards the north, is the tomb of 
Maimonides. To each of these we dismounted, 
and at the latter addressed a short prayer to the 
Almighty, that such great and good souls might 
repose and dwell in eternal felicity. On the sum- 
mit is the tomb of Rabbi Akeeba, near to whom 
lie interred, it is said, no less than forty thousand 
of his pupils, all of whom died between Passover 
and L'gBaomer. Themountainlowerdowniscom- 
pletely rocky, and here are two caverns, the one to 
the left containing the remains of Rabbi Koahna, 
that to the right those of Rabbi Jeremiah. 


Ten minutes distance from the tombs are 
several columns of granite, lying in fragments on 
the ground, one alone remaining erect. These 
columns are stated to be the remains of the well- 
known college Benee Amoodi, which was in its 
glory fifteen hundred years since. About the 
middle of the ascent is the tomb of the cele- 
brated Rabbi Meyer Baal Kane's, who, it is said, 
by his fervent prayers caused miracles to be 
wrought. The Arabs hold the tombs of the 
righteous and wise men in great veneration and 
respect. Passing again the baths, the person who 
keeps them had opened all the windows, and was 
standing at the door in expectation of our enter- 
ing: we received a humble salaam from him, 
though his countenance wore the marks of disap- 
pointment as we passed on. Many a salute was 
given us by the Bedouins, in recollection, I sup- 
pose, of yesterday's bakshish. Several of the 

Hhakhamim called. M received a letter, 

with the sign and seal of the chiefs of the several 
congregations, beseeching him to intercede with 
the Pacha of Egypt to permit them to repair the 
walls of the fortress, which was almost destroyed 
in 1837, thereby rendering the town, the lives and 
property of the inhabitants so much less secure 
against their neighbours the Druses, or any other 
enemy that might attack them. The Cadi, in the 


name of the Moslim inhabitants of the town, 
presented an Arabic petition to the same effect. 
M - has promised to comply with their request. 
A poor Arab woman, to whom we had sent a 
dollar, brought me a large plate of apricots, and 
some fragrant roses from her garden, half a mile 
off. A measure of corn has fallen in price from 
five piastres to two since our arrival here. The 
same was the case at Zafed. This is in a great 
degree owing to the people being now enabled to 
purchase with ready money, whereas before they 
took credit ; and another reason is, that the barley 
and corn are looking most promisingly. We at- 
tended synagogue in the evening. Some Israel- 
ites, seated on the ground at a separate divan, 
after supper, sang several of their native airs, and 
made an agreeable variety in the courtyard, 
where many extra lamps illuminated the place, 
the brilliancy of the moon and stars giving their 
own peculiar lustre to the novel scene. 

Our hostess has a young daughter about six 
years old, and a son about fifteen months, whom 
she still nurses. The divans round their sleeping- 
room serve for the greater part of the family. 
The servants take their mattresses, &c., into the 
outward apartment, and arrange them on the 
floor to sleep. 

We paid a visit this afternoon to Rabbi Y 's 


widow; her husband was a highly respectable 
man, one of the most learned and esteemed in the 
Holy Land. He had devoted his time, property, 
and abilities to the benefit of his fellow-beings, 
and his recent death is greatly lamented by the 
whole community. On learning our arrival in 
the Holy Land, he had dispatched letters to us, 
saying that he was very unwell, or he would have 
welcomed us in person. He had been ill only a 

Saturday, June 1. Tiberias. Being invited 
to become godfather and godmother to an infant 
of one of the inhabitants, we attended the syna- 
gogue to which he belonged, and then repaired to 
the lady's residence to receive the child. She was 
already seated on the divan, surrounded by a 
great number of her friends. I really could not 
imagine how the poor lady could support the 
fatigue, cooped up in a small room, which was 
oppressively hot. After the ceremony I received 

the baby from my dear M , and returned it to 

its mother, all the company offering me their 
felicitations and best wishes ; lemonade, cake, &c., 
being handed. We reached home to breakfast, 
and found the messenger returned from Jeru- 
salem, with letters from the British Consul, con- 
tinuing the report of the plague in the Holy City, 
though not to an alarming extent, and stating the 
great distress of the people, their anxiety for our 


arrival, and the good we might effect in coming. 
All this is a source of great perplexity ; but the 
desire to serve the afflicted, by every means in 
our power, and our nearness to the Holy City, 
will probably determine our proceeding. 

Dr. Loewe read and explained to us the dif- 
ferent predominating opinions respecting rewards 
and punishments in the future world, the Messiah, 
and the opinions generally entertained relative to 
our holy religion, and the origin of the Mishna and 
Talmud.* The former was compiled by the Patri- 
arch R. Yehooda ha-Nassi I., generally known 
by the appellation of Rabbenu Hakadosh, from 
the then existing traditional records : Mishnayot, 
and communications of R Hheeya, called Baray- 
tot. R. Yehooda, seeing the great troubles which 
took place in the nation, was afraid that the real 
explanation of the law as delivered by Moses, from 
one to the other, would be forgotten, and he 
put down in short and pure Hebrew terms, all 
that he knew respecting the law, or Torah, and 
the doctrines of our faith. His work being con- 
sidered of great importance, it was also denomi- 
nated by some authors Mishne Lamelekh, "the 
second to the king," the Torah being considered 
the first, the Mishna the second. But tyrannical 

* The word " Mislma," signifying " instruction," is derived 
from " shana," to teach ; the word " Talmud," signifying 
" study," from " lamod." to learn. 

s 2 


degrees and persecutions increasing, the pure 
Hebrew language was in danger of being forgot- 
ten in countries where the Aramaic and Syriac 
languages predominated, and hence even the 
Mishna required explanation the different 
opinions and discussions of the teachers, as well 
as the arguments of the students regarding the 
text of the same, and other matters connected 
with it, were then collected and published in a 
work which was called Talmud (study). 

The afternoon and evening were occupied in 
returning visits to several of -the chiefs of the 
congregations, and receiving visits from the 
principal inhabitants of the city. 

Many of the Jewish ladies, as well as the Arabic, 
paint their nails with hhenna, and the eyelids 
with kohhl. They requested to be assisted with 
means for building a synagogue, where females 
might be enabled to offer up their prayers with 
becoming respect to the Supreme. 

Sunday, June 2. Tiberias. Several visitors, 
ladies and gentlemen, again came to us, their 
infants and nurses accompanying the former. 
The cakes and wine we receive are opportune 
articles to treat them with; and we apply to 
Mrs. Abuelafia to send in coffee and sweetmeats to 
the gentlemen, the janissaries understanding the 
manner of serving them, as well as the cibouks, 
which frequently are passed from one fco the other. 


We have determined upon proceeding to Jeru- 
salem. May the Almighty guard us from all 
impending evils! Hhakha*m Abuelafia lifted up 
his hands in amazement and dread, when I this 
morning apprised him of our intention, notwith- 
standing the prevalence of a contagious malady, 
the threats of war, the menaces of the Druses, and 
the fatigue of the warm season. But the people 
are in misery, and have been long expecting our 
arrival ; in fact, before we ourselves had deter- 
mined upon the undertaking. We have just been 
interrupted in writing, by the request of several 

of the Volhynien congregation, that M would 

hear a complaint made against a man for assailing 
their chief rabbi, during his devotions in the house 
of prayer. The man was sent for, and the chief 
rabbi requested to appear. The charge stated and 
the defence made, it appeared that the aggressor, 
being irritated at what he regarded as an unjust 
distribution of the money, and finding no redress, 
in the moment of anger committed the fault. 

He was ordered to ask pardon, and pledge him- 
self to future good conduct, as, whether his state- 
ment were true or false, his conduct was unjusti- 
fiable. M afterwards entreated the elders to 

observe the strictest impartiality in the distribu- 
tion of any money they might receive, though he 
had no reason to doubt that this was already done. 

We engaged Amin, the governor's janissary, 


to accompany and attend us to the Holy City, 
in addition to our other guards. The fleas, mos- 
quitos, &c., will make me leave this place without 
regret. Several persons came to bid us farewell. 
The poor gazelle presented to me by the governor, 
I am, with much regret, obliged to leave behind 
me, in care of Dr. H. Weissman. It looks 
drooping, notwithstanding all our efforts. 

At half -past five we took leave of Hhakham 
Abuelafia and his lady, and, followed by many of 
the inhabitants, bade farewell to Tiberias. The 
officers of the governor accompanied us for some 
distance, and also a troop of horse with a band of 
music, going to join Ibrahim Pasha's regiment. 
As we passed through a fine barley-field one of 
the reapers approached and presented me with a 
large sheaf of the newly-cut corn. I felt gratified 
with this Eastern tribute of respect. We were 

overtaken on the road by Rabbi A B , 

who was proceeding on a handsome horse to his 
farm. He accompanied us by the shortest route 
to Eyn Louba, where we encamped for the night. 
There we also met the person who had offended 
the Hhakham at Tiberias. He came to justify him- 
self, and his open and noble countenance certainly 
spoke much in his favour. Both these persons re- 
mained during the night under one of our tents. 

Monday, June 3. Djenin. Left Eyn Louba at 
five this morning, but not till we had taken our 

DJEXlN. 263 

usual cup of coffee, a most salutary refreshment, 
before starting. After riding for about two hours 
through a delightful country, encircled by corn- 
fields and all sorts of fruit-trees, we turned into 

a path which Rabbi A , who acted as our 

guide, and was well acquainted with the country, 
pointed out as the shortest route. Our luggage 
had preceded us, but the rest of the people were 
not yet come up, and we judged it prudent to wait 
their arrival. Amin was accordingly dispatched 
to hasten them, and in the meanwhile we rested 
under an immense almond-tree, whose branches 
extended sufficiently to shelter us from the sun. 
After some time we perceived the horses and 
luggage, which had been led by a wrong path, 
and we pursued our journey till twenty minutes 
before two. Our carpets and cushions were then 
spread near a fine spring of water, called Eyn 
Djalood, and dinner was prepared, the enjoyment 
of the repast being in no slight degree heightened 
by the appetite which exercise had given, and 
the magnificence of the scenes which surrounded 
our resting place. 

We had early in the morning passed beneath 
the highest point of Mount Tabor, covered with 
forests, that breathed the air and wore the aspect 
of remote antiquity. To this majestic spot suc- 
ceeded sweet pastoral scenes, where the flocks 
and herds seem to be fed at the very hands of 


nature, and the Almighty appeared to be pouring 
forth the plenty of the harvest, to reward the 
slightest efforts of human industry. 

Having seated ourselves in a small cavern, 
formed in the rocks of Mount Djalood, the ancient 
Gilead, how many solemn though pleasurable 
thoughts floated through our minds ! " Is there 
no balm in Gilead ? Is there no physician there ? 
Why then is not the health of the daughter of my 
people recovered ? " Jer. viii. So sighed the pro- 
phet in times when the sorrows of Israel were as 
yet but beginning. Oh, how does the heart of 
the pilgrim cling to and yearn over the later 
words of the same prophet, " I will bring Israel 
again to his habitation, and he shall feed on Car- 
mel and Bashan, and his soul shall be satisfied 
upon Mount Ephraim and Gilead. In those days, 
and in that time, saith the Lord, the iniquity of 
Israel shall be sought for, and there shall be none; 
and the sins of Judah, and they shall not be 
found ; for I will pardon them whom I reserve." 
-Jer. 1. 19, 20. 

We left at a quarter past four, this spot so 
rich in associations, and where to the eye of 
fancy Jacob and Laban might still almost be 
seen making their league ; and the fatigue arising 
from a hot south wind was allayed by the re- 
freshing feelings produced by the blossoms of the 
numberless pomegranate, fig, and mulberry-trees 


which lined our road. At seven o'clock, having 
reached a well of good water, and in the midst 
of a beautiful orchard, we pitched our tents, and 
soon enjoyed the comfort of a nice cup of tea. 

We have, every day, had the satisfaction and 
delight of offering up prayers in Hebrew to our 
Heavenly Father and Preserver, and of reading 
some of the Psalms during the forenoon. The 
afternoon prayers are read aloud on the road, 
and inexpressible is the comfort attending this 
exercise of devotion. 

Being rather fatigued we retired to rest at an 
early hour. 

Tuesday, June 4. Djenin to Nablous. Our 
morning's journey led us through the most deli- 
cious country, and afforded as much of pleasure 
as the heart could look for. On passing the 
famous village of Arafidie, where Ibrahim Pacha 
gained a signal victory over the Syrians, our 
soldiers exultingly pointed out the site of the 
battle, and exclaimed, " Here it was that we 
thrashed the Hebron people. What pleases God 
he does ! The sword of Ibrahim, our lord, is 
powerful ! " The road soon after this became 
difficult and precipitous, being not only rocky 
but in parts undermined. We were compensated, 
however, for the inconvenience thus occasioned, 
by the magnificent character of the scenery- 
hills and valleys, lovely gardens and sparkling 


rivulets intermingling with each other, formed a 
picture on which the eye of either Salvator Rosa or 
Claude Lorraine would have dwelt with rapture. 
Within a quarter of an hour's distance of the 
famous town to which we were journeying, we 
discerned, to the right, the precipitous top of 
Mount Gerizim ; and to our left, the awful 
heights of Ebal. Even to the present day the 
richest bounties of nature crown the sides of the 
former, while those of the latter still bear the 
impress of the terrible sentences pronounced 
from its summit. As we kept strict quarantine, 
we passed outside the town, while Dr. Loewe, 
who had been here last year, galloped forward, 
and selected an interesting spot for our encamp- 
ment, at the foot of Mount Gerizim, and close 
to the Well of Jacob. Late events have added 
to the celebrity of this scene, so venerable in our 
eyes. It was by the Well of Jacob that Ibrahim 
Pacha sat, when, having assumed the disguise of 
a dervise, he misled the people from Hebron. 
On one side of us lay the beautiful plain which 
the patriarch purchased of Hamor, the father of 
Shechem ; on the other was Mount Ebal ; on our 
front, the tomb of Joseph, the place where Jacob 
built an altar, and called it El-elohe'-Israel, and 
behind us, the town of Shechem, well known, as 
the scene of many events recorded in the sacred 
annals of Scripture. 


It was here that Dr. Loewe directed our tents 
to be pitched. Shortly before sunset he proposed 
making a visit to the tomb of Joseph, but a feel- 
ing of oppressive fatigue soon compelled us to 
return. We partook of a draught of the excel- 
lent water of the well, and experienced its salu- 
tary qualities, so valued by the inhabitants of 
the place that it is used as a remedy against 
many disorders. Several persons visited us in 

the course of the evening ; and M requested 

them to go home and make out lists of the 
people who might stand in need of assistance. 
Before the night advanced, we took several short 
walks, and saw at every step something to ad- 
mire, something to awaken a new train of feel- 
ings and elevated reflections. On our return a 
young man came into the encampment, bearing 
an instrument somewhat similar to a violin, but 
made of copper instead of wood. He remained 
playing and singing till the close of the evening. 

Wednesday, June 5. Nablous (the ancient 
Sichem) to Sindgil. At an early hour repaired 
to the tomb of Joseph, the walls of which form 
a square, with a small entrance. There is no 
roof, and the natives affirm that they have never 
succeeded in building a cupola to this tomb, it 
having always fallen in. Towards the right of 
the entrance stands the sarcophagus, and on either 
side are two short pillars, surrounded by a large 


basin for the use of oil, which is lighted up on 
solemn occasions : opposite the tomb, to the left 
of the entrance, is a beautiful vine, interwoven 
with another luxuriant plant, in allusion to the 
passage, " Joseph will be an evergreen, young in 
branch." Opposite the entrance is a Hebrew 
inscription, containing the name of the person 
who built the walls around it, and the date. We 
there said our prayers, accompanied by the chiefs 
of the congregation of Nablous, who remained 
outside, fearful of contagion. After having 
gathered a few of the vine-leaves as a sacred 
memento, we took leave of the worthy Israelites 
who brought the lists, and proceeded on our way 
towards Awarta, the luggage having preceded us 
to Khawarta. We had now an additional guide, 
the same who last year had accompanied Dr. 
Loewe. To our left we passed the village Rougib, 
and for an hour and a half, Mount Gerizim to the 
right appeared in view, and on its summit the 
tomb of Khamor. We then proceeded towards 
the left, and ascended to the village Awarta, 
where the first place we visited was the tomb of 
Phinehas. It is beautifully kept up. A fine 
white wall forms the square, and in the centre of 
the tomb, of unusually large dimensions, there is 
to be seen, in one of the corners of the square, 
near the lamp, a tablet of white alabaster, bearing 
a long Samaritan inscription, which Dr. Loewe 


translated to us, and which he communicated to 
some of the learned societies. From thence we 
ascended to the tomb of Khamor. The Mussul- 
mans have built in its vicinity a mosque, 
according to their usual custom on the discovery 
of any sacred spot. The tomb is of the same 
character as the above, bearing a long Samaritan 
inscription, which was also translated by Dr. 
Loewe, who then read prayers to us, and wrote 
in Samaritan, that he had visited that spot a 
year ago. On entering we found a man standing 
at the gate, who did not seem willing to make 
way for us to pass : the rules of quarantine 
obliged us to call forth the authority of Hhasan, 
who by the menace of his cane, made him 
quickly retire. We then entered the tomb of the 
Seventy Elders, lying to the right of the tomb 
of Phinehas. Two small mosques are placed 
over them ; the first we entered by a small aper- 
ture, over which is a Cufic inscription, consisting 
of the Fathhah, or introductory chapter of the 
Koran. An immense number of Hebrew inscrip- 
tions and oil lamps manifested the veneration 
entertained for the place. The whole mountain 
is undermined, containing the tombs of men whose 
memories are cherished with profound veneration. 
Lastly, we went to the tomb of Eleazer, the son of 
Aaron the high-priest. The road leading to this 
.spot is very far from the best, and inflicts a toil on 


the pilgrim only to be compensated by the deep 
interest attached to the vicinity. The tomb is 
situated on the top of a mountain, surrounded by 
pines of immense size and ancient growth, and 
rises from the centre of the square. There is also 
a small cave, where people resort for the purpose 
of prayer. At the left of the entrance, in the 
corner, are two tablets, covered with Samaritan 
inscriptions, descriptive of the sacredness of the 
spot. Three or four other inscriptions of a similar 
kind were observed, and afforded additional proof 
of the extreme and reverential care with which 
the Samaritans have preserved these memorials of 
the honoured dead, and of the little reason which 
Ibrahim Pacha had to speak of them, which 
according to report he once did, as having no 

We passed some fine tamarind-trees and 
juniper bushes, and at a quarter to twelve rejoined 
our attendants, and found a tent pitched for our 
accommodation, and lunch ready, at Laban's Well. 
A delightful journey brought us, at a little past 
six, to the village of Sindgil. 

Thursday, June 6. From Sindgil to Jeru- 
salem. We ascended Djebbel Selouat, and pass- 
ing the village of Yabroud, arrived at Vady Tin, 
an immense valley, bounded on either side by 
rocks of every fantastic shape, and cultivated 
terraces, rising one above another, covered with 


vines and fig-trees, and displaying the resources of 
both art and industry. Our breakfast was pre- 
pared at Mafahrek, but there was no shelter from 
the sun's scorching rays, and M feeling him- 
self but little refreshed, when so exposed, we soon 
resumed our journey, and on the way passed 
through Touran, Bet Hanin, Eyn Abroud and 
Shabia. Half an hour before arriving at the last- 
named place, Dr. Loewe dismounted, and com- 
menced repeating all the Psalms which contain 
any allusion to Jerusalem or the Holy Land, 
connecting with them the prayers that are 
generally offered up at midnight. 

What the feelings of a traveller are when 
among the mountains on which the awful power 
of the Almighty once visibly rested, and when 
approaching the city where he placed his name ; 
whence his law was to go forth to all the world ; 
where the beauty of holiness shone in its morn- 
ing splendour ; and to which, even in its sorrow 
and captivity, even in its desolation, the very 
Gentiles, the people of all nations of the earth 
as well as its own children, look with profound 
awe and admiration. Oh ! what the feelings oi 
the traveller are on such a spot, and when listen- 
ing to the enraptured tones of Israel's own in- 
spired king, none can imagine but those who 
have had the privilege and the felicity to experi- 
ence them ! 


As we drew nearer to Jerusalem the aspect of 
the surrounding country became more and more 
sterile and gloomy. The land was covered with 
thorns and briers, and sadly did the words of the 
Psalmist rise to the thoughts : " He turneth 
rivers into a wilderness, and the water-springs 
into dry ground : a fruitful land into barrenness, 
for the wickedness of them that dwell therein ! " 
Ps. cvii. 33. 

But solemn as were the feelings excited by the 
melancholy desolateness of the rocky hills and 
valleys through which we were passing, they 
were suddenly lost in a sense of rapture and in- 
describable joy, for now the Holy City itself rose 
full into view, with all its cupolas and minarets 
reflecting the splendour of the heavens. Dis- 
mounting from our horses, we sat down and 
poured forth the sentiments which so strongly 
animated our hearts, in devout praises to Him 
whose mercy and providence alone had thus 
brought us a second time, in health and safety, 
to the city of our fathers. 

Pursuing our path, we soon passed the tomb 
of Nabbi Shemuel, (the prophet Samuel,) and at 
about five o'clock reached the gates of the Holy 
City. Hhasan having dismounted, his mule 
instantly ran off, and notwithstanding the efforts 
of his master, of Ibrahim, Armstrong, and 
Bekhor, kept them in chase till he stopped on 


the Mount of Olives. There Dr. Loewe proposed 

we should encamp, but M , being greatly 

fatigued, considered that it would be better to 
select a less elevated situation. We accordingly 
proceeded to the valley fixed on by the muk- 
karies ; but soon discovered that we had com- 
mitted a serious error, in choosing a spot whence 
the air was excluded, and which the contagious 
atmosphere of the town was so much more likely 
to infect : we, therefore, ascended a steep path, 
cut out of the mountain, almost like a flight of 
stairs, but which our horses scaled with their 
customary ease and safety. The pure air of the 
Mount of Olives breathed around us with the 
most refreshing fragrance ; and as we directed 
our attention to the surrounding view, Jeru- 
salem was seen in its entire extent at our feet, 
the Valley of Jehoshaphat to our left, and in the 
distance, the dark, misty waves of the Dead Sea, 

In the course of our journey we passed a num- 
ber of Arab women, who endeavoured to create 
some disturbance, but were speedily silenced by 
Hhasan and Saad-Eddin. Some other women 
were seated in groups round new-made graves, in 
the valley, and which, with affectionate care, they 
were decorating with fresh flowers. 

Friday, June 7. Jerusalem: the Mount of 
Olives. Thanks to Almighty God, we rested in 



peace and comfort beneath our tents ! At an 
early hour in the morning the governor, attended 
by his suite, and several of our brethren, came to 
visit us ; but the fatigues of the journey and heat 
of the weather rendering it necessary that we 
should indulge till a somewhat later hour, they 
went away, and returned at about nine o'clock. 

The governor, Mohhammad Djizdar, a good- 
tempered man, after sitting some time talking 

with M , Dr. Loewe acting as interpreter, 

asked to be introduced to me. I therefore came 
out of my tent, and was received with great 
politeness by his excellency and suite, the former, 
according to custom, placing his hand on his 

heart and forehead. Mr. A was delighted to 

see us, and stated that he had prepared his house 
for our reception, having long expected our 
arrival. The Hhakhamim of the Portuguese and 
German synagogues, and the principal members 
of the congregation, also came out to us, and 
many of them sent us presents of cake and wine. 
The governor presented us with five sheep, and 
offered to accompany us to Hebron and the Dead 
Sea. The fattest of the sheep was killed, and 
part given to the priest, a quarter to some poor 
families of our nation, and half to the mukkaries, 
to be dressed with rice for their supper. 

We breakfasted under an olive-tree, whose 
branches spread sufficiently wide to shelter us 


from the scorching rays of the sun. Mr. A 

had provided us with luxuries for the repast, 
which, through his kindness, consisted of apricots, 
oranges, cakes, fresh butter and cheese, tea and 
coffee. The romantic situation in which we par- 
took of this breakfast, added in no slight degree 
to its relish ; and our eyes felt that they could 
never grow weary of contemplating the Holy 
City, the valley, and other objects, among which 
was the tomb said to be of the prophetess 
Khouldah, enriching the sublime landscape 
spread before us. 

The governor proposed that we should enter the 
city in a day or two, when he would come officially 
to meet us, and proclaim a holiday. We are, 
however, strongly persuaded not to enter, cases of 
plague having occurred within the last few days. 
It is, therefore, our determination to remain in our 
present position on this beautiful mount, where 
the finest air, the most sublime views, and asso- 
ciations of the noblest kind unite to comfort us 
and elevate our thoughts. 

A few years back we could not have remained 
all night in this spot without the protection of 
two or three hundred men ; now two extra 
soldiers from the Moussellim suffice to complete 
the force necessary for our protection. 

Mr. Young, the British consul, and his lady, 
T 2 


came to see us. They are evidently very amiable 
persons, and will afford, I trust, as much help 
as it lies in their power to render to the afflicted 

people. Mr. Y states it as his opinion, that 

the chief cause of the plague is extreme poverty, 

and Mrs. Y told me that she had seen people 

eating the grass and weeds, from excess of hunger. 
These melancholy recitals furnished fresh reasons 
for every effort that could be made to bring the 
land into cultivation,* and afford employment to 
those who are at present without any regular 
means of support. 

This evening we recited our prayers on the 
Mount of Olives, and as we bent our eyes upon 
the site on which the temple once rose in all its 
glory, a glory which, even in its latter day, the 
heathen could not contemplate without awe, how 
did our hearts swell with holy emotion ! how fitly 
could we have adopted the language of Israel's 
own minstrel, " Thou art the God of our strength. 
Why dost thou cast us off ? Why go we mourn- 
ing because of the oppression of the enemy ? O 
send out thy light and thy truth : let them lead 
me : let them bring me unto thy holy hill, and to 
thy tabernacles. Then will I go unto the altar of 
God : unto God, my exceeding joy. Yea, upon 
the harp will I praise thee, O God, my God ! " 

Saturday, June 8. Jerusalem. Mount of 
* See Appendix. 


Olives encamped. We had our chairs, carpets, 
and umbrellas brought towards the Valley of 
Jehosaphat, opposite the site of the temple, near 
the tomb of Khouldah, and affording a distant 
view of the Dead Sea. The remembrance of this 
Sabbath morning can never be effaced. Every 
spot answers minutely to the descriptive language 
of Scripture. The walls of the temple may have 
yielded to the devastating arm of the conqueror ; 
but Mount Zion itself standeth for ever. Nor are 
there wanting objects, or circumstances, to give a 
present reality and vividness to the picture of 
past times, full of depth and power. The olive- 
trees spread their dim grey branches, as if emble- 
matical of hoar antiquity. The country is sad and 
of melancholy aspect; and every now andthenrose 
on the air the solemn funeral chant, the mournful 
lament for broken ties of love and kindred ! 

We received numerous presents of cake and 
wine, and, as on former occasions, they served us 
well when wishing to treat the visitors who 
kindly crowded to our encampment. A cord pro- 
tected us from their too near approach, and every 
precaution was deemed necessary, it being re- 
ported that fourteen or fifteen deaths occur daily 
in the city. I did not feel quite well, and towards 
evening was obliged to retire to bed, but the 
indisposition was attributed to my eating some 


We received, in the course of the afternoon, a 
visit from the representatives of the German con- 
gregation, headed by the reader and choir, who 

chanted a separate blessing for my dear M , 

myself, and Dr. Loewe. Dr. Loewe read and 
translated some descriptions of the Holy City, 

from an Ancient Hebrew work, and M read 

the book of Zechariah. Oh, might we not 
have exclaimed, When will the words of that 
prophet be fulfilled, " I will strengthen the house 
of Judah, and I will save the house of Joseph, 
and I will bring them again to place them : for I 
have mercy upon them : and they shall be as 
though I had not cast them out : for I am the 
Lord their God, and will hear them ! "x. 6. 

Sunday, June 9. Jerusalem. At an early hour 
visitors flocked up the Mount to our tents. We 
regretted we could not admit them, but we 
gave them the best welcome which the cordon 
would allow us to afford. Many petitions were 
preferred by poor distressed people, some request- 
ing that their debts might be paid, and others 
supporting the plea by a simple statement of 
multiplied necessities. The ladies of the Hha- 
khamim and other persons of respectability, also 
came and seated themselves under the trees, 
where cakes and wine were served to both rich 
and poor. 

Last night we were disturbed by an intruder in 


our tent, which was supposed to be a jackal, 
animals of that species, and foxes, being common 
among the mountains of this neighbourhood. 
Saad-Eddin, Hhasan, and the rest were ready 
with their muskets, and promised to be on the 
watch during the night, but it was thought 
afterwards that a dog only had caused the alarm. 

Our dread of infection forbids our making any 
purchases, and when a letter is brought it is 
taken by the guard with a pair of pincers, and 
laid on the ground, beneath some stones, which 
are required to prevent the wind, which is very 
high, from blowing it away. 

The Moussellim has paid another visit to M 

to-day, and the substance of their conversation, 
as interpreted by Dr. Loewe, was as follows : 

The Governor. " May your day be bright and 
blessed !" 

Sir M . " And yours full of blessings and 

" May the Almighty prolong your 
" And yours continue in happi- 

" The air is delightful here." 
" Most beautiful. I should think 
the breezes of this mountain would convey health 
and every other blessing to the Holy City." 
G . " Doubtless all blessings arise from this 


mountain ; particularly as you have pitched your 
tent upon it." 

Sir M . "Blessed be he who bestows so 

much honour upon me by his kind and flattering 
expressions !" 

G . " I say what my heart feels, and that 

which the whole world witnesses with me !" 

" Sir M . " I wish it were in my power to 

show my friendly feelings towards you, as well 
as to others who think so kindly of me." 

G . " I wish to impress on your mind, that 

not only the Jews, but the Mussulmans, Chris- 
tians, and every other class of the inhabitants 
are most anxious for your entrance into the Holy 

Sir M . " I am perfectly convinced of the 

worthy and distinguished character of its inhabi- 
tants, and that such it should be is not astonish- 
ing, subjected as it is to the careful observation 
of such a governor as yourself ; and had it not 

been on account of Lady M , I should have 

entered the town the very day of my arrival." 

G . " God shall prolong your life. Only 

under the watchful eye of our lord, Ibrahim 
Pacha, and yourself, can happiness be increased. 
At the time when our lord came to Jerusalem, I 
went to meet him. He said to me, ' Achmet ! ' I 
replied, ' Effendina !' ' You know the age when 
it was said, This is a Christian, and that a Jew, 


and there is a Mussulman ! but now, Achmet, 
these times are past. Never ask what he is ; 
let him be of whatsoever religion he may, do 
him justice, as the Lord of the world desired 
of us ! " 

Sir M . " These are my sentiments. Make 

no distinction. Be like the sun which shines 
over the whole world all are blessed by its light, 
all strengthened and refreshed by its warmth, 
whether they be Jews, Christians, or Mussul- 

G . " Long live Effendina ! His sword is 

very long ! Look at the spot on which your 
tents are pitched. Ten years ago five hundred 
men would have been needed to make your 
abode here secure. At present you may walk 
with a bag of gold in your hand. Not a soul 
would molest you." 

Sir M . " You are perfectly right. I can 

myself bear witness to the change that has taken 
place in this country. Twelve years ago, when I 
visited this town, I often heard the complaints 
of travellers. Even at that time I personally 
experienced no inconvenience. But now that 
Mehemet Ali governs, we not only travel in 
security, but are furnished by his highness with 
letters of introduction to the various authorities 
of the country." 

G . " Mehemet Ali knows how to appre- 


ciate distinguished persons like yourself ; and I 
assure you I am longing to show you every proof 
of my respect. But while you are sitting here 
in quarantine our means are limited, and it is 
impossible for us to manifest the delight which 
would otherwise be evidenced. Follow my advice. 
Enter the city, and I will come and accompany 
you with the whole of my suite. The day of 
your appearing among us shall be a festival to 
all the people. I will send you a beautiful 
Arabian horse ; in short, whatever you like, 
whether soldiers, horses, or servants. Depend 
upon it, by my head, by my eyes, by my beard, 
all shall be ready in a moment !" 

Sir M . " I feel highly obliged to you, and 

am fully assured of your good will. I promise 
you that I will enter, be it the will of God, on 
Wednesday morning, when I shall be happy to 
avail myself of the kind offer of your company. 

G . You have poured torrents of blessings 

on my head ; and I shall not fail to be here, at 
whatever hour you desire, with the Khakham 
Morenu, whether before or after sunrise. We 
are all your servants/' 

Sir M . " The Almighty bless your days. 

I shall ever remember your name, and say, how 
happy are the people under your protection !" 

G . " Bright may be your life ! May you 

enjoy your stay in the Holy City, and return to 


your blessed country in happiness. Shall I not 
have the great honour of seeing your most 
worthy lady?" 

Sir M . " I exceedingly regret her ladyship 

did not enjoy a good night's rest, and is obliged 
to remain a few hours in her tent ; but I shall 
have the pleasure of informing her of your kind 

G . " Give me now leave to go." 

Sir M . " The Almighty bless you ! Go 

in peace !" 

G . " In peace. Sir M , God bless you." 

Monday, June 10. Jerusalem. Mount of 
Olives. At four o'clock Dr. Loewe called us, and 
said, that during the night the wind, in its vio- 
lence, had torn off the canvas of his tent, and 
furled it up like an umbrella. Having gone in 
search of the guards to assist him in bringing 
some stones to keep it down, he had found them 
all asleep ; and the soundness of their slumbers 
being increased by the effects of the last night's 
treat of wine, he did not succeed in waking them, 
but hid their shoes, as a punishment for their 
forgetfulness of duty, having sworn, as they had 
done, by their eyes and heads, to be watchful 
guardians during the night. It was, however, 
a little excusable ; perhaps, the red-water, as 
they call the juice of the grape, that those who 
enjoy it may not seem to violate the prophet's 


command, had exercised its influence on their 
spirits. In the course of the evening they had 
sung, while seated on the ground, under a tree, 
many a wild Arab song. Nature assuredly pre- 
dominated over art. There were no measured 
sentences no preparation ; but the heart seized 
upon, and then gave itself up to the enjoyment 
of the fleeting hour. Yet amid all this ready 
susceptibility to the excitement of pleasure the 
Arab never forgets his religious duties. At 
sun-rise, at noon-tide, and at the close of the 
day, they are ever seen devoutly bowing towards 
the east ; and even while on their journey, at 
these hours our attendants leave the beaten track, 
and having waited for awhile reverentially to 
offer up their prayers, hasten to overtake us. 

Our horses were brought at five o'clock, and 
we set off for the Valley of Jehoshaphat. Having 
first ridden round the walls of the city, we ob- 
served particularly the part built by the Saracens, 
and which is composed of stone of immense 
dimensions. Soldiers were being drilled. We met 
many of our brethren ; and Mr. Bell, who called 
on us yesterday with his companion, was sketch- 
ing one of the fortresses. 

As we continued our route the brook of Kidron 
intersected the road, once pouring its turbid 
stream of gloomy waters, fit emblem of coming 
sorrows, but now a dry bed of stones. To our 


left lay Berekhat-David, a reservoir of water, 
and soon after we came to the tomb of Zechariah. 
We were struck with the exceeding beauty of 
the architecture and its wonderful state of pre- 
servation, after having been exposed to the suns 
and storms of more than two thousand years. 

Absalom's monument, and the tomb of Jehosha- 
phat were equally objects of reverential admira- 
tion. Numberless other tombs, with Hebrew in- 
scriptions, were strewed about the valley, a region 
so fitted to inspire a sweet and tender melancholy, 
and where the mind seems ever disposed to enter 
into converse with the spirits of the just, and to 
dwell in a region of thought more pure and ele- 
vated than it can reach amid scenes of a livelier 

The morning's ride was in all respects delight- 
ful and interesting, and we returned to our en- 
campment, impressed with many not unprofitable 
sentiments. Breakfast was awaiting us, and we 
never partook of a repast with more satisfaction. 
Several parties of ladies and gentlemen visited 
us during the day, and whom we treated, as 
usual, with cake and wine. Among the rest 
were Mrs. N - and four gentlemen from Eng- 
land ; but all were obliged to remain outside the 
cordon. We took another ride in the evening, 
and our Arab guards, servants, and mukkaries 
are at this moment celebrating the anniversary 


of our wedding with many songs and choruses, to 
which they keep time with loud clapping of hands. 
Tuesday, June 11. Jerusalem. At half-past 
six o'clock, accompanied by one of the Hebrew 
inhabitants, we went on horseback to the city of 
David. At the entrance to the inner court we 
were accosted by some Turks, to whom we ex- 
plained that it was our wish to see the tomb of 
King David. On this one of the young men shook 
his head, and insultingly replied, that we could 
not see it, Ibrahim Pacha having prohibited the 
Franks from entering the sacred vault, particu- 
larly since a European, last year, had forced open 
one of the gates. Dr. Loewe, indignant at this 
reply, put up his stick in a menacing attitude, 
when the others said they would call the sheikh, 
who immediately made his appearance, and bow- 
ing, apologized for the young man, whom he 
called his son. He then led us up to an apart- 
ment, where there was a kind of tomb, and which 
he pointed out as marking the hallowed spot we 
sought. But considering that David was not 
interred in an arched building, but in a vault, 
we remonstrated on the deceit attempted, and 
returned to the inner court, when we wrote 
a few lines in Arabic to the governor, request- 
ing to be favoured, if possible, with his pre- 
sence there for a few moments. In the mean 
time, other persons wished to intrude them- 


selves, and became very importunate in their de- 
sire to remain ; but we could not permit it, and 
our soldiers and the janissary were obliged to 
use their authority. An officer from the governor 
now arrived, and said that his excellency would 
soon follow. In the mean time the chiefs of the 

Portuguese and Germans, Mr. N and Mr. 

A - joined us, and the sheikh then brought 
out a paper, which was an order from his master 
Ibrahim Pacha, forbidding him to admit Franks 
to the tomb of King David. To this, however, 
we did not deign to listen, assuming, after the 
deceit before practised, all the importance in our 
power. At length the governor made his appear- 
ance, attended by his usual escort. We stated 
our wishes, and with his customary pleasing and 
conciliating mien, he asked to see Ibrahim's 
order, which having read, he consulted with his 
officers, and stated the contents of the paper. 
We replied, that it might relate to the generality 
of Franks, but that having, as we had, the Pacha's 
soldiers for guides, and being known to, and pro- 
tected by all the governors of Syria, it could not 
apply to us ; still that we could not desire to act 
contrary to his wishes, and would therefore sub- 
mit to the order. He immediately replied, that 
we should enter, and that he would have the 
pleasure of accompanying us. Sherbet, cibouks, 
and coffee were then served to a large circle, and 


the whole party were as agreeable as if nothing 
had happened, the sheikh himself not less so than 
the rest, though he had narrowly escaped a severe 
blow from a stone. 

Some time having been passed in compli- 
mentary conversation, we at length arose, the 
governor leading the way, and pointing for me to 
follow. About a dozen of the party accompanied 
us, and having entered a spacious vaulted cham- 
ber, painted in Turkish fashion, we saw at the 
further end a trellised door, and being led to the 
spot, we beheld through the lattice the sacred and 
royal deposit of the best and noblest of kings. 
Yes ! there we contemplated the resting-place of 
all that was mortal of him, whom the electing 
wisdom of the Almighty had placed on the throne 
of a kingdom, which had, at first, but the Lord 
himself for its King : of him, who, resplendent 
as he was in royal dignity, was still more glorious 
for those gifts of wisdom, of holiness, and 
heavenly genius, in the sublime power of which 
he moulded the thoughts of countless generations 
to forms of celestial beauty, which still furnish 
worshippers of every clime and nation, with the 
purest and the noblest language of devotion. In 
the records of his experience, whether tried by 
affliction and humbled by the weight of conscious 
sin, or filled with the gladdening feelings of hope, 
the heart never fails to read revelations of its 


deepest secrets, to discover more of its state 
and nature, and to learn better how to adore 
the eternal Spirit, who spoke by the mouth of 
this kingly prophet. 

We read in Hebrew, and then translated in the 
presence of all, a very devotional prayer. How 
impossible is it to describe the feelings with which 
we were impressed ! 

A deputation of the principal persons residing 
at Hebron arrived this afternoon to offer their 
congratulations. They proposed to remain all 
night under a tent. This evening being the anni- 
versary of the dedication of our synagogue at 
Ramsgate, and also of our marriage, according to 
the Hebrew date, the 30th of Sivan, the prayers 
were read by the whole company in the open air. 
Chairs were brought out, but many preferred sit- 
ting on the ground, observing that the mountain 
itself afforded a better seat than the most costly 
divan, for that it was the chosen spot of the 
Most High. Having gone through the several 
parts of the service proper for the occasion, wine, 
liqueurs, and cake were served round to the 
visitors, who seemed greatly to enjoy the treat, 
and expressed themselves in terms of praise to 
God, and with the most ardent sentiments of 
attachment towards ourselves. 

The Arab soldiers and janissaries were also 


supplied with cake and red water, having par- 
taken of which they commenced singing, and 
performed several of their national dances with 
the naked sword. The governor sent a handsome 

Arabian horse for M to ride to-morrow 

through the city, and which on being tried, was 
found extremely spirited. 

Wednesday, June 12. Jerusalem. At a quarter 
past three we were called, in order to commence 
early preparations for entering the city. The 
governor arrived at six o'clock, attended by his 
officers and suite. Coffee, cibouks, and a plate of 
cake were served, his excellency giving a piece 
of the latter to each of his suite. After some con- 
versation, we rose to depart. M expressed 

his wish to ride his own horse, thinking that sent 
for him too spirited, but the governor replied that 
two young men were appointed to walk by his 
side. All the party being mounted, the governor 
led the way, attended by his officers. The chief 
of the cavalry arranged the order of march, and 
two soldiers with long muskets were appointed 
immediately to precede me. The scene produced 
by this descent of the Mount of Olives, passing 
as we were through the most romantic defiles, 
and with long lines of Turkish soldiers, mounted 
on noble Arab horses and dressed in the most 
costly costume, cannot be easily described. More 


honour, they said, could not have been paid even 
to a king. 

We entered the city through the Gate of the 
Tribes. The streets were narrow, and almost 
filled up with loose stones, and the ruins of houses 
which had fallen to decay. Our guards on each 
side were busily engaged in keeping off the 
people, a precaution rendered necessary to lessen 
the danger of contagion. Having passed through 
the bazaar, we entered the Jewish quarter of the 
town, and which appeared the cleanest of any we 
had traversed. 

The streets, every lattice, and all the tops of 
the houses were thronged with children and 
veiled females. Bands of music, and choirs of 
singers welcomed our arrival with melodies com- 
posed for the occasion, while every now and then 
the loud quick clapping of hands gave signal that 
the whole vast crowd of spectators was striving 
to give expression to popular delight. Having 
reached the synagogue, the governor entered with 

us, and then said, addressing M , he would 

leave us to our devotions, and that his officers 
should attend us when we pleased to return to 

our encampment. M was called to the 

Sepher, and offered for all our friends in England 

as well as for those present. I was allowed the 

honour of lighting four lamps in front of the altar, 

u 2 


and putting the bells on the Sepher. Blessings 

were then given for M and me, and for the 

party. We then went successively to three other 
Portuguese, and two German synagogues, one of 
which belongs to Mr. Lehren, of Amsterdam. A 
new synagogue and ten houses are partly built, 
but for want of funds remain unfinished. Bless- 
ings at each place of devotion were offered up for 
us, and no sight can I imagine more impressive or 
delightful than that which was thus exhibited. 

On our return the streets presented the same 
thronged and festive appearance as before, and 
thousands of good wishes and prayers were pre- 
sented to heaven for our peace and happiness. In 
our progress we called at Mr. Young's and Mr. 
Amslack's and were received with great kindness, 
and treated with coffee, sherbet, and cake. 

While M proceeded to the governor's, I 

remained at Mr. Lehren's synagogue. I was most 
thankful when they returned, for though the kind 
people had not ceased to show me attention, and 
heap their good things before me, such was the 
fatigue I had suffered that I found myself falling- 
asleep at almost every sentence they uttered. 

We returned by the tower of David, the valley 
of Jehoshaphat, Mount Zion, and Mount Moriah. 

M was as fatigued as myself, though both 

full of thankful and satisfactory reflections. He 


sent the governor a present of a hundred dollars, 
which in handsome terms he declined accepting. 

Thursday, June 13. Jerusalem. Mount of Olives. 
All this day has been occupied with persons 
who have come to our encampment requesting 
assistance, with reading their letters, and con- 
sidering the best manner of relieving their dis- 
tress. The difficulty of procuring cash was most 
perplexing, there being no banker here, and 

neither Mr. A nor the British consul being 

able to supply any. The former could merely 
muster a hundred pounds, and Zafed and Tiberias 
had made fearful inroads upon our supply taken 
from Beyrout. At last, with what we could spare, 

M resolved to give an order on Beyrout to 

make up the sum he wished to give to the German 
and Portuguese congregations in this city the 
prevalence of the plague preventing his distri- 
buting it himself, as he did at Zafed and Tiberias. 

In the course of the day the ladies of a charity 
for the relief of the sick, and for the apportioning 
of poor young women, called, and brought a letter, 
requesting me to become patroness of the charity, 
and to allow my name to be placed at the head 
of the institution. I consented, and we sent them 
a donation. The servants and attendants of the 
governor, and the composer of a song for us were 
remunerated, and the poor Mussulmans received 


Intelligence was brought us that the poor man, 
a good and industrious person, who killed a sheep 
for us on Friday last, and who appeared to be 
only about thirty years of age, and in the best 
health, had died of the plague. 

We have now happily settled many of our little 
affairs, and all with whom we have been con- 
cerned appear highly contented. The three hun- 
dred and seventy-six dollars brought from Dr. 
Herschell and our E-amsgate synagogue are to be 

distributed to-morrow. M is now writing 

a note to Dr. Keith, thanking him for the present 
of his book on the " Literal Fulfilment of Pro- 

It is a lovely evening : the new moon is up, 
and the heavens are full of stars, while a disposi- 
tion to thought clears away the mists of time. 
Fresh and sweet sounds the song of David : " The 
heavens declare the glory of God, and the firma- 
ment sheweth his handy- work : day unto day 
uttereth speech, and night unto night sheweth 

Under the soft rays of this delicious and starry 
evening our friends continue to assemble, and it 
is their purpose to remain all night upon the spot, 
that they may be ready to anticipate our depar- 
ture in the morning from the mountains of Zion. 
As they keep the watches through the solemn 
hours of repose, may they not seem like those 


who, in days long gone by, heard pealing from the 
temple, " Behold, bless ye the Lord, all ye servants 
of the Lord, which by night stand in the house 
of the Lord. Lift up your hands in the sanctuary, 
and bless the Lord. The Lord that made heaven 
and earth, bless thee out of Zion?" Psalm cxxiv. 

We yesterday went to inspect the western wall 
of the temple of Solomon. How wonderful .that 
it should have so long defied the ravages of time! 
The huge stones seem to cling together ; to be 
cemented by a power mightier than decay, that 
they may be a memorial of Israel's past glory : 
and oh ! may they not be regarded as a sign of 
future greatness, when Israel shall be redeemed, 
and the whole world shall, with one accord, sing 
praises to Israel's God! 

Friday, June 14. Jerusalem to Hebron. Arose 
at half-past three o'clock, it being our wish to 
depart in the cool of the morning. When my 

dear M 's horse was to be prepared, the saddle 

could nowhere be found. At length it was sug- 
gested that it must have been sent home with 
the Moussellim's horse. We were accordingly 
detained till it could be sent for. 

Several of the persons named before had re- 
mained through the night, and now proposed to 
accompany us the whole way to Hebron. This 
we could not allow. At six o'clock we took a 


parting view of Zion, Mount Moriah, and the 
numberless objects which our religion has con- 
secrated as monuments of a glory, passed, indeed, 
as to its visible splendour, but ever bright and 
present to the hearts of the children of Israel. 

Oh! who could dwell upon such scenes, and 
not glow with devotion and holy love ! Who 
could look upon the spots which Moses and Aaron 
had in anxious prospect ; spots familiar to the 
eyes of David and Solomon ; and that most sacred 
of all, where our father Abraham was directed to 
offer up his only son Isaac, through whom all the 
families of the earth were to be blessed. Oh ! who 
could look upon such scenes, and not ask, When 
shall the days come when the voice of the Lord 
shall be heard, saying, "Break forth into joy : sing 
together, ye waste places of Jerusalem: for the 
Lord hath comforted his people: he hath redeemed 
Jerusalem. The Lord hath made bare his holy 
arm in the eyes of all the nations : and all the 
ends of the earth shall see the salvation of our 
God?" Isaiah lii. 9, 10. 

Mr. A and two deputies soon joined us on 

the road, with the intention, they stated, of accom- 
panying us to Hebron. On reaching Rachael's 
tomb, we found several of our brethren assembled 
there, in expectation of our arrival. Here we 
read prayers, and I inscribed my name, amid 

HEBRON. 297 

many thousands of others, on the sacred monu- 
ment. The wall is fast crumbling into ruins, 
and we directed inquiries to be made as to the 
sum required for its repair. 

The remainder of our road lay through a wild 
and rocky district, till we reached a green and 
fertile spot, where there was a large reservoir of 
water, called Berekat David, and said to have 
been formed in the time of that monarch ; the 
water being conducted by an aqueduct to the 
very courts of the temple. 

Having breakfasted at this pleasant spot, we 
pursued our journey, which now conducted us 
through vineyards and hills covered with fig and 
olive-trees. Several of the Hhakhamim came out 
to meet us, and at six o'clock we encamped in a 
beautiful valley, near Jacob's Well, and sur- 
rounded by green and well- wooded hills. 

Saturday, June 15. Hebron. Went to the 
Portuguese synagogue. The streets of this town, 
like most others in Syria, are narrow, and full of 
stones and rubbish. Apparently the houses are 
built without timber, and no paint is applied, 
either for use or decoration. But the inhabitants 
are accustomed to no better dwellings, and the 
enthusiastic feelings inspired by the knowledge 
that they are living in the land of their fathers 
and of the patriarchs, supply a resolution more 


than sufficient to enable them to support their 
privations and trials. 

The same honours as on former occasions were 
paid us at synagogue, and the chiefs accompanied 
us back to the encampment. Soon after the 
Moussellim was announced, and he had brought 
us four sheep as a present ; but as he had not come 
to meet us with the same respect which had been 
shown at Zaf ed and Jerusalem, we refused to ac- 
cept the offering, and kept him waiting till the 
conclusion of our breakfast. This show of spirit 
and consequence is necessary with Mussulmans, 
and we reaped the advantage of it in the present 
instance, for on our going out to receive the old 
gentleman we found him attended by several of 
his officers and servants awaiting our appearance 
outside the cordon, we being still in quarantine. 
Apologies were straightway made for the seem- 
ing neglect, and it was stated that Thursday had 
been named as the day of our arrival, the chiefs of 
the synagogue being charged with the blame at- 
tending the error. Had this not been the case, 
added the governor, he would have rendered us all 
the honours to which we had so proper a claim. 
When he had taken coffee and cake, and was 
making us many offers of service, we asked if the 
cave of Machpelah could be visited by Franks. 
He shook his head, and said with great conse- 

HEBRON. 299 

quence, " Oh, no, impossible ! " There were, 
however, he said, many other places of great inte- 
rest to visit the tombs of Abner, Ruth, Jesse, 
the father of David, and Athniel, the Son of 

The country here is extremely rich in vine- 
yards, and the hills are clothed with olive-trees, 
pomegranates, figs, tamarinds, and apricots. 
How greatly should I enjoy having a house in this 
extensive plain, where our tents are now pitched, 
and where I could linger as long as I chose, con- 
templating the sublime mountain scenery, wan- 
dering amid the monuments of the founders and 
teachers of our nation ; and combining with this 
higher species of enjoyment the comforts and the 
usefulness of domestic life. 

Almost the whole day was occupied in receiv- 
ing visits. Some of the ladies are very pretty 
and agreeable. They marry at fourteen or fifteen, 
and many at thirty years of age are grandmothers. 
The girls wore a profusion of artificial flowers on 
their heads, their long tresses hanging down their 
backs. We received many presents of cake and 

Sunday, June 16. Hebron. The lists of the 
people were brought according to request ; but as 
usual many alterations were required. While at 
breakfast under an olive-tree, we heard the sound 


of the Zoomma'rah, or double-reed pipe, and sent 
Saad Eddin, one of our janissaries, to purchase it. 
The drum was immediately taken by Hhasan, our 
black soldier from the governor of Bey rout ; and 
with Amin, the janissary from Tiberias, he struck 
up a concert which set the mukkarries dancing in 
succession, from the black slave to the old Druse ; 
each dance differing from the other, and all dis- 
playing grace in attitude and figure. Saad- 
Eddin, however, excelled the whole by his agility 
in the sword-dance, and the skill with which he 
displayed his handkerchief in various forms, as 
the gift of his friend. This concluded by an 
encounter with Amin, in a graceful sparring 
match; Saad-Eddin conquered by striking his 
sword on the top of Amin's head, on which the 
latter had taken the precaution of placing his 
handkerchief. The governor paid us another 
visit a great mark of respect and distinction. 
He repeated his apologies for not corning to meet 
us on the road, and renewed his offers of services 
His tone was subdued in respect to our visiting 
the holy places, for which he volunteered his 
services. The sheikh who visited us yesterday 
sent us a present of a large jar of fresh butter and 
one of honey. 

Mr. A came and breakfasted, and passed 

the day with us ; he had his carpet and cushion 

HEBRON. 301 

with him, and remained outside the tent 
on account of quarantine. He brought me a 
large bottle of ottar of roses, a present from his 
lady. The four sheep given us by the governor 
were submitted to the knife, and the parts appro- 
priated to the priests, presented to them with 
the accustomed prayer, were accepted with grate- 
ful thanks and blessings. The fore-quarters 
were devoted to poor families, and our mukkaries 
have this evening a feast with the hind-quarters. 
Again we have received presents of cake, wine, 
and liqueurs, and that opportunely, considering 
the number of kind visitors whom we have to 
entertain. To-day also there were brought us 
the lists of the Jewish population, and with them 
certificates of seats for our occupation in the 
German and Portuguese synagogues, transferred 

to both M and myself for ever. These 

documents were accompanied with the most 
affecting and enthusiastic expressions of regard. 
We were also requested to become patrons of an 
institution for the promotion of Talmud Tora, 
the study of our Holy Law, to the appellation of 
which they did us the honour of adding our 
names ; and the distinction of patroness of their 
institution for the sick and for the apportioning 
of young women was conferred upon me. 

Never was I more deeply impressed with devo- 


tional feelings than amid the scenes which here 
surround us. This is the burial place of Abraham, 
Isaac, and Jacob ; of Sarah and Leah ; and the 
water which we drink is drawn from the well of 
Jacob. How sad it is that the terrors of a des- 
potic government should throw so dark a shade 
over a region and objects so noble and so sublime ! 

The Hhakhamim expressed great surprise that 
all the four sheep proved Kasher. Ten were 
killed on Friday last, and only two were fitting 
for use. The circumstance was regarded as a 
peculiar mark of favour. They called this Valley 
of Hebron the Valley of Flowers ; and one of the 
oldest of them brought me a bunch of beautiful 
carnations from the gardens. The females ex- 
pressed themselves delighted at our presence, and 
said that, if we would stay among them, they 
would every day walk with me in the neighbour- 
ing vineyards and on the hills, embellished with 
the loveliest shades, and sanctified by the tombs 
of the great, the pious, and the learned. 

We have some hopes of visiting the cave of 
Machpelah to-morrow morning. The sheikh has 
promised to escort us. 

Monday, June 17. Hebron. Agreeably to our 
engagement with the governor and the sheikh, 
they arrived a little before nine, accompanied by 
their suite, the chiefs of the Portuguese and Ger- 

HEBRON. 303 

man synagogues. The party being assembled, 
coffee, pipes, and other refreshments were served 
with all due attention to Eastern etiquette, the 
principal personages seating themselves cross- 
legged, and the rest standing behind. But little 
time was spent before all was in readiness for our 
departure. We were soon mounted Armstrong, 
Ann, Ibrahim, our janissaries, and soldiers escort- 
ing us, and many of our brethren following on 
foot, all eager to obtain admission to a sight of the 
venerated spot where repose the patriarchs Abra- 
ham, Isaac, and Jacob. As we paraded through 
the streets, many a proud Mussulman eyed us 
with jealous scrutiny. The inhabitants of Hebron 
differ from their turbaned brethren of Jerusalem 
and other cities. Much of urbanity and kind- 
ness are discernible in the conduct of the latter, 
while the former, strutting about, or seated on 
the side of the streets, seem only anxious to 
show the pride, and exercise the violence, of 

On arriving at the gate of the mosque, we 
found a great crowd assembled, and consisting 
chiefly of Turks, among whom was a dervish, the 
sound of whose hideous cries, as he shook his 
head and tossed his arms furiously about, his 
whole appearance rendered doubly frightful by a 
dark grizzly beard, was almost enough to terrify 


a bolder heart than mine. To his hideous yells, as 
we continued to approach, were added those of 
the multitude, but encouraged by the governor 
and cadi, who led the way, we dismounted and 
gained an entrance. It was soon apparent, 
however, that the authority of office exercises 
little influence here. A turbulent throng of 
Mussulmans was collected in the interior of the 
mosque, and they were soon joined by the raving 
dervish. In the meantime the noise outside con- 
tinued to increase, and the Jews, who were 
anxiously waiting to obtain a sight of the bury- 
ing-place of their revered forefathers, experienced 
the most violent insults. The Moslem, with pale 
face, pointed to an iron door, saying that it was 
that which led to the interior of the cave. But 
the rage of the Turks, and the howling of the 
dervish now became more violent than ever, and 
we decided that it would be prudent to retire 
without attempting a further entrance. We ac- 
cordingly retreated as we had advanced; the 
governor and cadi, with their officers, preceding 
us. Hhasan and Saad-Eddin behaved most vali- 
antly, repulsing with their silver-headed canes 
those who had assailed our poor brethren, and 
exultingly challenging a dozen at a time. On 
leaving this scene of fanatic fury, the governor 
attempted some apology for what had occurred, 

HEBRON. 305 

observing that it was impossible for him to 
check the violence of religious enthusiasm. This 
might be true, but as governor of a town he 
should have known better the extent and force 
of his authority, and not have allowed us to en- 
counter so much confusion and alarm. We made 
no reply, but rode on to our encampment, thank- 
ful and happy that we had escaped without in- 
jury. The contrast between the scene which we 
had just witnessed, and the calm beauty of the 
Vale of Flowers, with the grandeur and tran- 
quility of the surrounding country, could not but 
excite in our minds some sad reflections on the 
fearful opposition which the passions of mankind 
are ever making to the wisdom and benevolence 
of the Deity. 

But impressed as we were with these feelings, 
it was not to be forgotten that even in this land 
of oppression improvement has taken place. A 
year or two back, had any of our brethren ven- 
tured to walk where now our tents are pitched, 
they would have been in danger of being stoned 
by the Arabs. Our position is not without its 
perils, but these are occasioned by the marauders 
of the desert, not far from which we are en- 
camped, and the governor has granted us an 
extra nightly guard. The only curiosity which 
attracted our notice in our way to the cave 


were two immense stones, nine yards and a half 
long by one yard broad. 

Two of the Pakidim came to inform us that 
the congregation was in great uneasiness ; that 
the Mussulmans had collected in considerable 
numbers, and were beating the Israelites with 
sticks, and otherwise ill-using them; that many 
of the sufferers were obliged to seek their beds, 
while others were trembling at the possibility of 
receiving yet greater injuries. In great dismay 
we consulted what was to be done, when it was 
determined that a messenger should be sent to 
the governor of Jerusalem, who on our quitting 
that city had recommended an additional escort. 
Dr. Loewe wrote an Arabic letter to his excel- 
lency, describing the occurrence of the forenoon, 
and asking protection. Our fears continued, but 
nothing further happened to increase the appre- 
hension of danger. In the course of the after- 
noon we went to the synagogue, when rny dear 
M distributed the money destined for the 
poor in the same manner as at Zafed and Tiberias. 
We found that the reports respecting the injuries 
that had been received were somewhat exagge- 
rated. At half-past six we returned to our tents. 
Many persons visited us during the evening, 
which did not pass without some feeling of alarm- 
occasionally intruding itself. The fire-arms were 

HEBRON. 307 

carefully examined before we retired to rest, but 
happily nothing took place to disturb the repose 
in which we forgot the turmoils of the past day. 

Tuesday, June 18. Olive-ground in the Valley 
of Flowers. The night passed peaceably. We, 
therefore, with the blessing of Providence, pur- 
pose setting off this afternoon. At nine o'clock 

we rode to the German synagogue, where M 

officiated as godfather, and I as godmother, to 

the child of M. S. S , who is at present in 

Europe, whither he has been sent by his congre- 
gation to collect contributions for their support. 
This is the third honour of the kind which we 
have received during our sojourn in the Holy 

At half -past three, all being in readiness, we 
took our departure from the olive ground ac- 
companied by vast numbers of Hhakhamim, and 
members of the congregations. In a few minutes 
the governor and sheikh, with their attendants, 
rode up to us, and continued to accompany us 
about half an hour. They repeated their 
apologies for the disagreeable result of yester- 
day's excursion to the shrine of Abraham ; but 
we assured them that as the danger had passed, 
so had vanished our uncomfortable feelings. Our 
recollection we added, was now wholly occupied 
with the kindness and honours which we had 
x 2 


experienced from all classes during our stay in 
their ancient and venerated city. 

After a most cordial farewell, we pursued our 
route, chanting the Psalms of David in chorus 
with many of our brethren, who, notwithstand- 
ing our entreaties that they would not continue 
such a journey on foot, still proceeded, pouring 
out prayers for our welfare and felicity, and other 
expressions of gratitude and regard. A horseman 
was now seen approaching us at full speed. It 
was Amin, our faithful messenger, on his return. 
Then were espied numbers of soldiers galloping 
over the hills, their swords and spears glittering 
in the sun. It was a troop of horse, consisting 
of twenty- one picked men, sent by our excellent 
friend the governor of Jerusalem. His aga 
approached at full speed, attended by his chief 
officer, who having descended from their fine 
Arabian chargers, presented a letter from their 
master, holding another to the governor of 
Hebron. The one to us was as friendly and 
affectionate as though he had been a brother, 
saying, that if his advice had been followed, all 
the unpleasant occurrences of yesterday would 
have been spared us, and that immediately on 
receiving our letter he had despatched twenty- 
one of his best soldiers for our protection. Who 
could describe the fulness of our hearts as we 

HEBRON. 309 

turned our horses' heads again towards Hebron, 
escorted by so numerous a troop, presenting the 
most martial appearance, as well as by seventeen 
of our own attendants. With this formidable 
company we again took possession of the olive- 
ground, resolving to encamp there for the night, 
and to manifest by every means in our power the 
joy we felt at the proof here given, that difference 
of religion does not always preclude amity, or 
render impossible a reciprocity of kindness. The 

aga, addressing himself to my dear M , on 

delivering the letter, said that he and his men 
were sent to protect us, and that they were ready 
to shed their blood in that duty. Our return to 
Hebron was not caused \>y a feeling of bravado, 
but that we might refresh the men after a 
fatiguing ride, though certainly not without the 
desire of shaming our rude assailants by ex- 
hibiting the conduct of others in contrast with 
their own. We could now with safety have 
visited the cave, which we venerate equally with 
themselves, but what we did not obtain with 
complacency, we would not by obtrusion. The 
soldiers asked permission to fire their pistols as 
they entered the field. It was certainly an 
animating occurrence, and one never to be erased 
from our memory, that the Almighty should 
permit the children of Israel to be protected by 


an armed force of Mussulmans in the land of their 
ancestors. Soon were we again surrounded by 
numbers of our brethren, their wives and children. 
Nine sheep were ordered to be killed immediately, 
and bonfires to be made round the field. Some 
of the sheep were roasted whole. It was a joyful 
sight ! Abundance of wine, bread, fruit, vege- 
tables, and rice were added to the feast, of which 
all partook, without distinction of religion. 

The hilarity continued to a late hour, and the 
firing throughout the night, only perhaps to the 
annoyance of those who merited it. Tobacco 
was not forgotten among the luxuries, nor a 
supply of gunpowder for the amusement of 
the Turks. While the fete was being prepared, 
we rode up the hill to visit some ancient tombs, 
one of which was that of Jesse, the father of 
David, and at which we said our evening prayers, 
joined by eight Israelites who had accompanied 
us. Returning down the hill, the sight that 
presented itself to us might well have employed 
a painter's skill. The blazing fires, the whole 
sheep roasting, groups of Arabs seated in circles, 
some smoking, others singing, dancing, cooking, 
or firing their pistols, formed a scene as striking 
as it was novel. Mirth and content were 
diffused round an immense circle. Thanks to 
the Giver of all ! 

HEBRON. 311 

Wednesday r , June 19. The firing disturbed us 
throughout the night, but our satisfaction pre- 
cluded the idea of fatigue. At half-past seven 
we were all mounted, our valiant troop pro- 
ceeding en avant, the splendour of the Turkish 
uniform, and the beauty of the horses striking us 
with admiration. During the day's journey they 
amused us with sham fights, throwing the djerid, 
firing of pistols, rnuskets, and feats of the broad- 
sword. It was a most pleasing and entertaining 
morning; they were admirable horsemen, and 
threw the lance (while in full gallop) most grace- 
fully, attacking each other riding to and fro in 
circles up and down the hills. At half -past nine 
we stopped at the tomb of Nathan the prophet, 
and Gad the Seer, near the village of Halhool, 
where we read prayers, and partook of refresh- 
ment. We remained till twelve, when our good 

old friend Mr. A , who had accompanied us 

thus far, took his leave, intending to return to 
Jerusalem by the direct road. We have ex- 
perienced every kind attention from this gentle- 
man. Our route now continued along a descent 
between mountains till past two o'clock, when 
entering on a plain, we dismounted, and seated 
ourselves on the grass, our extra guard forming 

a circle around. My dear M , on discharging 

them, presented fifty dollars to the aga, and two 


to each of 'the men, with a promise of a supply 
of English gunpowder to each on our return. 

The name of every man was then inquired and 

written down. M returned a letter of thanks 

to the governor, with a present of a valuable 
telescope. Our road has been to-day free from 
precipices, and pretty easy, the mountains richly 
covered with ash, the plains well cultivated with 
corn and olive trees. We encamped in a planta- 
tion of olives, near the village of Zaccaria, a 
quarter before eight in the evening. My dear 

M was greatly fatigued, and he retired as 

soon as his bed was prepared. On carving some 
poultry we had brought with us, ready roasted, 
we were obliged to send it immediately from 
the table. 

Thursday, June 20. My dear M feels so 

indisposed this morning, that he entertains the 
idea of proceeding by water from Jaffa, should he 
there meet an Austrian steam-boat. But I trust 
in the Almighty that on arriving at that port, 
his strength will be sufficiently renovated to con- 
tinue our equestrian tour. We were en route this 
morning before six, and passed through fertile 
plains, enlivened by herds of cattle and camels 
laden with corn. At half-past ten we reposed at 
Nayani, under the shade of a large tamarind-tree, 
but which, though extremely agreeable, is not 

BET DiGON. 313 

equal to the shady fig-tree, whose 'spreading 
branches defy the scorching sun. Here we re- 
mained from half-past ten to eight, and then 
continued our journey to Bet Dagon, where for- 
merly stood the temple of Dagon. See 1 Samuel, 
v. 2, &c. It was twelve before we arrived, but 
it was a delightful moonlight evening, and the 
well- wooded country through which we passed 
resembled some of the noblemen's parks in Eng- 
land, with this difference, that instead of oak 
there were stately olive-trees, which seemed to vie 
with the noblest of the former in size as well as 
age. The country in the vicinity of Ramlah 
was equally beautiful, and compensated us for a 
little fatigue. 

Friday, June 21. Bet Ddgon, near Ashdod, 
on the sands, close to the sea, near Jaffa. Set 

off at half-past seven, my dear M weak 

and poorly. About half way to Jaffa, Amin 
rejoined us, with the janissary of the British 
consul, who would have come himself, but that 
the plague is in the city. We rode to the 
sands, close to the sea, and pitched our tents. 
Here we were soon visited by the English and 
Russian consuls, with their guardiani, we, as 
before, making a lazaretto of our tents. Their 
information respecting the state of the country 
was not the most encouraging. They represented 


it as verjr disturbed, and added that the roads 
hence to Beyrout were extremely insecure. What 
was to be done ? we could not remain stationary 
where we then were. Presents of various kinds, 
as usual, flocked in from the governor, the cadi, 
and consuls, and we had a quantity of fine water- 
melons, and different sorts of fruit, butter, fish, 
&c., but we could obtain neither meat nor 
poultry, as the Shohe't had quitted on account 
of the plague. A good supply of excellent fish 

sufficed in their stead. M rested during the 

day, but arose and dressed for sabbath. 

Saturday, June 22. Jaffa. On a sandy shore 
near the sea, seated in Dr. Loewe's tent, we read 
our sabbath prayers. The weather is fine, but 
warm, according with the climate. We had made 
rather too free an inroad into the plentiful supply 
of apricots and water-melons sent us yesterday, 
but having nothing to interrupt the day's tran- 
quillity, rest restored us. The British, Russian, 
and Prussian consuls visited us, and remained 
some time supporting a very agreeable conversa- 
tion. The Russian gentleman urged my accept- 
ance of a curious ancient silver ring, and two 
antique coins, which, with M 's appro- 
bation, I did not refuse. The ring resembles a 
large medal, and bears an Arabic inscription. 
The superintendent of the quarantine also came 


to our tents to offer his services. M requested 
him to give us a certificate of health, and also of 
our having avoided entering the city, for which 
he requested his acceptance of twenty Spanish 
dollars. We hope that this document will enable 
us to pass to Beyrout free of quarantine. In the 
evening the cadi paid us a visit ; he is brother 
to our friend the governor of Jerusalem, from 
whom he had received a letter apprising him 
of our intended visit to Jaffa, and requesting 
that every possible attention might be shown 
us. This request certainly has been fulfilled 
both by the governor and the cadi to the utmost 
of our wishes. 

Sunday, June 23. Started at ten minutes 

before six o'clock. My dear M finds himself 

better this morning, and enjoys the ride. In the 
course of an hour we arrived at an old stone 
bridge, fast mouldering to decay; and having 
crossed the river Petras, reached, by nine o'clock, 
the tomb of the sheikh Ali ibn Alim, situated on 
an eminence towards the sea. The district which 
we were now traversing was a sandy, arid waste, 
and the only shelter to be found was that of a 
mosque, in which, infested though it was with 
fieas, we were glad to rest for awhile, and partake 
of breakfast, the chief luxury of which was 
water-melons. It was half -past two before we 


started again. The heat now became almost in- 
tolerable. About four o'clock we crossed the 
river Nahr el Felek, the bed of which was almost 
dry, while the country around still presented the 
same wild and dreary aspect, except as it was oc- 
casionally relieved by the appearance of tobacco- 
plantations in full blossom. By six o'clock we 
reached a wide and fertile plain, at the extremity 
of which appeared the mountains of Carmel, the 
intervening lands, with the village of Emkhalet, 
its flocks and herds, and wells of sweet water, 
offering to our sight, as the moon rose and shed 
its soft lustre around us, as lovely a pastoral scene 
as poet or painter could well imagine. And here 
it was that we formed our encampment for the 

Monday, June 24. We had the courage to 
rise at midnight, in order to escape the heat. 
Two hours were occupied in loading the mules, 
and in other preparations for starting, among 
which must be mentioned the little repast, con- 
sisting of a nice cup of coffee and some biscuits. 

How balmy and tranquil was the air at this 
hour I The whole world seemed to have sunk 
into repose, while the moon and stars, which had 
lost none of their brilliancy, shed their delightful 
radiance on our solitary path. At about four 
o'clock their lustre yielded to the more powerful 


splendours of the sun, which suddenly shot above 
the horizon, and majestically cast aside his noc- 
turnal mantle. 

We now crossed the river Kedra, and arrived 
at Minet el Batikh, or market of water-melons, 
and also called Abu Zabara. At a quarter-past- 
seven we reached the ancient town of Csesarea, 
the splendid ruins of which, with its magnificent 
marble and granite columns, still testify the riches 
of Herod's proud and favourite city. But it is 
now nearly covered by the sea, and the beholder, 
as he contemplates its once noble harbour, may 
well exclaim, " How are thy cities fallen ! " 

On leaving Emkhalet this morning, it required 
all the sagacity of our horses to preserve us from 
accidents, as we passed the many cavities in the 
road near the village, and which owe their origin 
to the existence of numerous subterranean 
magazines for corn. When these dangers were 
escaped, the ride along the sands, till we reached 
Csesarea, was truly delightful. Having break- 
fasted, and reposed till a quarter-past twelve, I 
employed myself, while preparations were being 
made for resuming our journey, in collecting some 
of the beautiful wild flowers which grew in pro- 
fusion around. I fear, however, that my botanical 
treasure will meet with the same fate as many of 
its predecessors, and other rarities. When the 


mules took a fancy to roll themselves in the sand, 
baggage and all, there was little chance for our 
curiosities, and in regard to flowers, as I had but 
a loose book in which to place them, a gust of 
wind, or a precipitous pass, was usually sufficient 
to destroy the fruits of my diligence. 

At half-past one we were again on our way, 
and in the course of two hours crossed the river 
Zarka, where we observed the ruins of an ancient 
bridge. We again crossed the Zarka before 
arriving at the village Tantura, and after a very 
interesting journey, encamped at five minutes 
past three close to the sea, the light breezes from 
which, though refreshing, were scarcely sufficient 
to dissipate the sultry heat of the atmosphere. 
To our right, on a hill, we observed the ruins of 
an ancient castle, which added in no slight degree 
to the interest of a scene in itself, with a lovely 
evening to aid it, full of sweetness and beauty. 

Tuesday, June 25. El Khddar,foot of Mount 
Carmel. In order to reach Acre, and avoid the 
scorching heat of the sun, we were called at 
midnight, and very soon after all hands were em- 
ployed in taking down the tents, and in reloading 
the mules and donkeys, Ibrahim not neglecting to 
prepare the coffee as usual. By two o'clock we 
were mounted, and after passing a short tract of 
rocky and sandy ground, reached a fine open plain, 


partly cultivated with barley and tobacco, and 
presenting in other places a rich variety of wild 
shrubs, which formed a gay mantle for the huge 
fragments of rock that were strewed around. 
Mount Carmel bounded the distant view on the 
right, and to the left, through the opening hills, we 
caught frequent glimpses of the Mediterranean. 

At about half-past three the clouds of night 
began to disappear, and the stars gradually waned 
before the rising dawn, which now shed its lustre 
over the surrounding scenes. Within about two 
hours of this place, one of the janissaries informed 
Dr. Loewe that some curious remains were to be 
seen towards our left. This information induced 
us to seek the spot, and traversing the plain for 
about a quarter of a mile, we came to some 
remains of an ancient fortress, called by the 
natives Atlik, and situated close to the sea. A 
gate, magnificent even in its ruins, then presented 
itself. Its sculpture and architecture resembled 
those of the most ancient times, except the form 
of the entrance, which was arched, and therefore 
belonged to a later period. A few steps further, 
towards the entrance, we perceived a square aper- 
ture in the roof of the building, and which for- 
merly served to let down an immense monolith, 
to bar the entrance in case of attack, being simi- 
lar to those gates seen even at the present day 
in the pyramid of Geezah. 


Proceeding towards the northern part of the 
village, opposite to the gate, we came to an im- 
mensely strong wall, facing the east, and the 
architecture of which was similar to that of the 
western wall of the temple at Jerusalem, and 
other Jewish buildings. It was exceedingly well 
preserved, and may last another thousand years. 
Continuing our investigations, we proceeded a 
little higher up towards the west, when another 
wall of the same character appeared facing the 
east, and constructed of the stone furnished by 
the adjacent rocks. On entering the village, a 
beautiful cylindrical edifice, with five symmetrical 
ornaments struck our view. The figures repre- 
senting human faces, above the windows and en- 
trances, show that the Romans, at some period or 
the other, made additions to the original building, 
which, no doubt, owed its foundation to the 
Israelites. The edifice has long furnished a 
shelter to the cattle and the poorer inhabitants of 
the village, who have greatly aided to destroy its 
beauty by plastering the walls with mud. 

We rejoined our party by a path cut out of the 
solid rock, leading to the plain, and pursuing our 
journey, soon reached a rivulet, the banks of 
which were ornamented by the most beautiful 
oleanders. Approaching Kaif a, and passing Mount 
Carmel, we proposed breakfasting, and remaining 


encamped during the heat of the day, when we 
perceived a number of horses grazing, and im- 
mediately afterwards, a large encampment. At 
first we supposed that they belonged to Ibrahim 
Pacha, but soon discovered that they were those 
of some English gentlemen whom we had met at 
Jerusalem. The party was, in fact, guarded by a 
strong cordon, and our progress was stopped by 
officers of quarantine. We presented the certi- 
ficate from Jaffa, but what was our disappoint- 
ment and vexation, when we found that neither 
the document nor our explanations, that we had 
avoided every town and village, and encamped 
with all our people outside the walls, could pro- 
cure us the liberty of proceeding. A letter was 
sent to the officer, with an offer of one hun- 
dred colonadis, but it did not succeed ; his orders 
were peremptory, and we were accordingly 
obliged to pitch our tents on the sea-shore in quar- 
antine. The governor of Beyrout was next 
addressed in an Arabic letter, describing the 
grievance to which we were subjected, and re- 
questing his advice ; and another letter was sent 

to Mr. K , partner in the house of K , 

H , and Co., of Beyrout. Two guardiani were 

then appointed, and from them we ascertained, 
that if we received permission to depart with only 
seven days' quarantine instead of fourteen, what- 



ever we might take with us must be washed, and 
that even to our tents and bedding. To prevent 
delay, we would not wait till the return of the 
messenger, which cannot be before Saturday 
morning, but immediately commenced making an 
assortment for the journey to Beyrout, and having 
them well dipped in the sea. Our tents were 
exposed to the same ablutions, with the excep- 
tion of that required for the night. 

We have just been informed that a messenger 
named Rabbi David Loeb, to whom we spoke 
at Kasmia, and who was sent from Zafed by 
Rabbi Abraham Dob to Beyrout, for the money 
forwarded from Amsterdam for the congregation, 
has been wounded and robbed. While resisting 
the Arab who tore from him the bag of money in- 
trusted to his care for the poor, the barbarian took 
his sword, cut off the fingers which held the trea- 
sure, and immediately made off. But by the 
justice of Providence he has been captured, de- 
prived of his spoil, and suffered the retaliated 
pain which he inflicted on his unfortunate victim. 

Kasmia is the place which, providentially, we 
could not reach on the night when we slept in 
the open air. It is considered a very dangerous 
part of the country. In how many instances, O 
Lord, have, we remarked thy peculiar mercy and 
protecting aid ! 


Wednesday, June 26. El Khddar, foot of 
Mount Carm 1. We were highly amused this 
morning at seeing all the mookkaries entering the 
water, with even their turbans and under caps. 
Dr. Keith and his friend are performing quaran- 
tine on the shore. We spared him one of the two 
water-melons, which alone remained of the pre- 
sent made us by the cadi of Jaffa. Two baskets 
of fruit have been sent us by the consul of Acre. 
The figs are the first we have tasted this year, and 
with the apricots, apples, and citrons, are very 
acceptable. Our situation here perpetually re- 
minds us of one of the most remarkable events 
recorded in Scripture. 1 Kings, xviii. Mr. 
Finzi, the British agent at Acre, has just been 
here. He is a most intelligent and hospitable 
person. Having heard of our visit to the several 

cities in Palestine, and of M 's wish to render 

a permanent benefit to the inhabitants by the in- 
troduction of agriculture, he has prepared de- 
scriptions of the various villages in his vicinity, 
of the lands, and their quality and productions. 
He last year supported forty of the inhabitants 
at his table, after the attack of the Druses, and 
supplied them with clothing. In the hope of 
seeing us, he made a journey to Jerusalem, from 
which city he is just returned. Thus our deten- 
tion here has not been without its use. 
Y 2 


Thursday, June 27. El Khddar, foot of Mount 
Carmel. Yesterday we parted with Amin, our 
Tiberian janissary. Being near home, he was 
anxious to return, nor was his anxiety lessened 
by the prospect which he had of being dipped, 
with all his possessions, in the sea, if he conti- 
nued to attend us on our journey. He had proved 
himself very faithful and attentive, and we were 
all fully satisfied with his conduct. After receiv- 
ing a handsome bakshish, he came into my tent, 
and taking my .hand, which he kissed, placed it 
on his forehead. We are supplied with good 
poultry, bread, and milk, &c., from Kaifa, and 
well prepared by the people of our nation. A 
present of four dressed fowls was yesterday sent 
us by the Portuguese, and they furnished this 
morning's breakfast. 

We learn that the governor of Acre has sent his 
forty-five wives to the convent of the Carmelites, 
on the top of Mount Carmel ; a somewhat suspi- 
cious circumstance when war is so much spoken 
of. The fragrance of the flowers which crown 
the summit of the mount, is spoken of as exqui- 
sitely sweet. A road is being constructed, ex- 
te.nding to the valley. Some of the English tra- 
vellers took pratique this morning, and are gone 
on board a felucca now lying in the bay. Re- 
joiced they must be, for the heat is only just sup- 


portable as moderated by the breezes from the 

Information has been brought us that many of 
the inhabitants of Zafed have fled hither in 
dread of another attack from the Druses. The 
sufferings which they endured last year have 
tilled them with terror at the very mention of the 
name of the marauders. Awful indeed is the 
state of the country. Laws, human and divine, 
are alike despised, and the land which might have 
flowed with milk and honey, lies forlorn and 

Friday, June 28. El Khddar, foot of Mount 
Carmel Arose at four to prepare for a ride up 
Mount Carmel. The horses being ready, we 
mounted, and proceeded to the cordon. To our 
request that we might pass through, in order to 
visit the cave of Elijah, the guard answered that 
it was filled with cattle, which had been placed 
there for protection against the heat and the 
plague. Thus disappointed, we turned our horses' 
heads, and ascended to the summit of the mount, 
over the path along which the new road is being 
constructed, and which is at present very preci- 
pitous, and almost covered with thorns and large 
stones. The convent is a handsome, spacious 
building, not yet quite finished. Two of the 
monks were standing at the entrance, and we 


should have paid them a visit, but were prevented 
by the rules of quarantine. Our sagada, there- 
fore, was spread, and we seated ourselves for a few 
moments to enjoy the delicious perfume of the 
various wild flowers, which grew in rich luxuri- 
ance around. Magnificent was the scene that 
lay before us. A sloping plantation of tobacco ; 
the winding path leading to the beach ; the blue 
waters of the Mediterranean with the towns of 
Kaifa and Acre encircling the bay, -formed the 
main features of this lovely prospect, every por- 
tion of which derived an unspeakable interest 
from historical associations. Dr. Keith would 
have breakfasted with us this morning, but the 

rules of quarantine forbade it. Mr. B is 

detained another week, from the mere circum- 
stance of having come in contact with another 

person. Lord C H , Lord R , and 

Mr. L - departed yesterday. To-day, all the 
soldiers on duty here were sent off, for the pur- 
pose, we suppose, of joining Ibrahim's army. 
Three prisoners and a soldier, their hands 
chained, and guarded by Turks on horseback, 
have just passed by. 

Saturday June 29. El Khddar,foot of Mount 
Carmel. While we were dressing this morning, 

M asked me the hour. It was half -past 

seven. Though Saturday morning, such now for 


some time has been our habit of early rising, that 
half-past seven seemed by comparison very late. 
One of the messengers sent to Beyrout returned 

to-day, and brought letters from Mr. K , with 

some English and Italian newspapers, whereby 
we found that disturbances had taken place in 
Paris, and in some of the English manufacturing 
towns, and also that a temporary change had 
occurred in the administration. 

The Druses have made inroads into Damascus, 
and pillaged many of the inhabitants. Great 
fears are also entertained respecting the security 
of the road between this place and Beyrout. One 
of our mookkaries, who will have to return alone 
if he proceed with us, asked to be dismissed, 
having great apprehension of the danger of re- 
tracing his steps without companions. We have 

not yet granted his request. M 's horse and 

two mules belong to him ; and M being so 

well satisfied with the former, is unwilling to 
mount another steed. 

We regret to be informed of the death of Lady 
Hester Stanhope, an event accelerated probably 
by the chagrin she experienced at the conduct of 
the government respecting her income. Those 
who knew her rarely failed to speak with admira- 
tion of her lofty intellect and noble feelings, which 
counterbalanced, in their estimation, most of her 


singularities. She was interred on the 23rd inst. 
two days after she breathed her last. The 

British consul and Mr. T went to Sidon to 

attend her funeral. 

The superior of the convent yesterday sent us 
a present of six bottles of Cyprus wine, with a 
very complimentary note. We had the pleasure 
of sending a portion to Dr. Keith. This morning 
he has sent a cheese and milk, with another letter, 
expressing a hope that we shall visit his convent 
before our departure, and regretting that we did 
not enter on our previous excursion up the 

Sunday, June 30. El Khddar. Another pre- 
sent, consisting of liqueurs and melons, arrived 
this morning from the superior of the convent. 
He expresses a hope that we shall inscribe our 
names among those of other distinguished persons 
who have visited his convent. Our second mes- 
senger is just returned with duplicates of the 
letters brought yesterday from Beyrout, and the 
expected letter from the governor, directing our 
release from quarantine to-morrow. The English 
consul, and the physician of Kaifa, have just paid 
their respects, and expressed themselves satisfied 
at our appearance, not deeming it necessary to 
feel our pulse. We, of course, were content, and 
took care not to mention that our servant Ann, 


was labouring under fatigue from the heat of the 
weather and the journey, lest our doing so might 
cause an addition of forty days to our quarantine. 
The contemplation of such a result is by no 
means agreeable, especially when the cannon 
from the neighbouring town is resounding in 
our ears. The firing is stated to be in con- 
sequence of a victory gained by Ibrahim Pacha's 
troops over those of the Sultan, near Aleppo. If 
this be the case, the road is more secure, but 
it confirms the report respecting hostilities. Dr. 
Keith and his friend, Dr. Bonar, called. Their 
servant has warned them of the dangerous state 
of the road to Beyrout, and they accordingly in- 
tend departing to-morrow by water. 

Monday, July 1. El Khddar. In consequence 
of what had been stated respecting the road to 
Beyrout, we engaged extra janissaries, and Signor 
Finzi's cavas to attend us, that gentleman him- 
self also intending to form part of our company. 
We arose at four o'clock. The guardiani, and all 
the persons who had sent us presents came to 
take leave and to receive bakshish. There were 
also the captain of the quarantine, the keeper of 
the post-office, &c., &c., in fact every one who 
could make any pretence to this sort of remunera- 
tion. At length, having satisfied these numerous 
claimants, on the seventh day of our quarantine, 


we took leave of Mount Carmel. The English 

consul, Paolo M , the physician, Signior 

F , and the officers of the station, were at the 

gate on horseback ready to accompany us to 
Kaifa. On approaching the synagogue we were 
met by the heads of the congregation, and escorted 
to the place of worship. At the entrance we 
thanked our numerous cortege, and begged they 
would not wait till service was over. Having 
taken leave, we proceeded i o offer up our prayers 
to the Almighty, with thanksgivings for the pro- 
tection he had graciously vouchsafed us. A dollar 
was then distributed to each individual ; but 

M could scarcely conceal his vexation at 

observing the disparity of age between some of 
the married people ; in one case a man of sixty 
was the husband of a girl of thirteen. 

On leaving the synagogue we found the 
English consul still at the door with his cavas, 
ready to precede us on our route. After a three 
hours' ride on the sands we reached the neigh- 
bourhood of Acre, having been previously met 
by the chiefs of the congregation on horseback. 
We did not enter the town, but seating ourselves 
under some trees, partook of luncheon, and 
remained till two o'clock. Our position afforded 
a view of the new fortifications, and of the ruins 
of those destroyed by Ibrahim Pacha, also of 


the aqueducts which extend for two miles, to Sib, 
the ancient Akzib. At length, after a journey of 
nine hours and a half, we encamped for the night 
at Aboo Atabi. On the road we passed two 
bridges, and a Roman column, with an inscrip- 
tion of Augustus Csesar, lying on the ground. 

Tuesday, July 2. We arose at midnight. As 
usual it employed two hours to dress, take coffee, 
and load the mules. The moon and stars shed 
their light to guide us on the way, and the air 
was soft and balmy. Our party now consisted of 
twenty-four persons, and we deemed ourselves 
sufficiently strong to boast of not dreading even a 
band of the Druses ; this martial feeling being 
occasionally stimulated by the firing off of our 
pistols and muskets. The road was mountainous 
and rocky, and my horse lost a shoe, but it still 
carried me safely. I frequently regret having so 
soon to part with an animal which has served me 
so well. It seems to look better than at the 
commencement of our journey. I am frequently 
presented, by our attendants, with flowers and 
other productions of the fields. My pistol- 
holsters were adorned to-day with a sheaf of 
Indian corn, said to contain two thousand grains ; 
with a leaf of the cotton-plant, and of the linseed 
given me by Mr. Finzi, and with rhododendrons 
and other flowers of various hue. 


Arriving at a spring of water, said to possess 
the quality of healing all complaints, we refreshed 
ourselves and horses, and soon after stopped at a 
place called El Ghafar, or the Guardians, where 
we reposed, and took luncheon under some large 
pine-trees, with the sea in full view. We re- 
mained here about four hours, and at six o'clock 
remounted our horses. The road was rocky and 
precipitous, but we arrived in safety at Ras el 
Ayn, where we encamped for the night. 

Wednesday, July 3. At half -past one we found 
ourselves on the way to El Kantare, and a good 
road enabled me to shake off the drowsiness 
which occasionally oppressed me, and only finally 
yielded at the dawn of day, when we commenced 
our morning devotions. On passing an extensive 
plain, bounded by rocks and caverns, a wolf was 
seen leaping along the base of the cliff. One of 
our valiant cavas instantly pointed his musket 
and fired, but without effect. Four wild fawns 
next presented themselves, and bounded across 
the plain, near the sea-shore, mocking the eager 
and sportsman-like pursuit of our companions. 
El Kantare again afforded us a spot for agreeable 
repose ; but the road from hence to Kasmia is 
infested by robbers, and we found that the poor 
fellow who had taken the money for the people 
of Zafed had been plundered, and was since dead 


by the wounds which he received from the 
robbers. We slept at Bassatin. 

Thursday, July 4. The neighing of the horses 
awoke me before twelve, and when I looked 
through the opening of the tent, already almost 
illuminated by the first rays of the rising moon, 
the scene presented by the bivouack of our suite 
might easily have excited in an imaginative mind 
the memory of many a strange and adventurous 
legend. All for a time remained sunk in deep 
repose. At length " Sookoo, Akhlasoo," and 
" Tdllah" and then " Ibrahim, Ibrahim," re 
sounded through the still midnight air. The 
busy stir of preparation was begun, and after the 
usual refreshment we were fairly en route before 
two o'clock. The songs of the Arabs kept us well 
awake, and at ten o'clock we stopped to break- 
fast, and remained reposing for six hours. 

As we passed through Sidon yesterday the 
people were seated in groups outside the houses, 
gaily dressed, and rejoicing at the victory gained 
by the Pacha's troops over those of the Sultan. 

We continued along the sea-shore, and were 
astonished to behold the accumulation of sand 
over the mulberry plantations. It is of a reddish 
hue, and is said to increase every year. Several 
gentlemen from Beyrout came to meet us, and a 
young man from Mr. K brought the inf orma- 


tion that Mr. T 's house had been engaged 

for our reception. We stopped to take sherbet 
at the same khan at which we before rested. 

Friday, July 5. Beyrout. We find Mr. T 's 

house far more agreeable than a tent. It affords 
better protection against insects, though not quite 
impenetrable to the mosquitoes. The house 
being unfurnished, we have accepted the offer of 
Mr. Kilbey to procure us another bedstead, a sofa, 
chairs, and table. Few situations can be more 
lovely than that of this residence. The hill on 
which it stands is covered with gardens. On one 
side, in the distance, soar the magnificent moun- 
tains of Lebanon ; on the other are noble planta- 
tions of palms, mulberry-trees, and others, reach- 
ing down to the very borders of the sea. 

Mr. T is one of the missionaries, and is 

very civil and accommodating to strangers. 

Saturday, July 6. Beyrout. The steam-boat 
Acheron, Captain Kennedy, arrived early this 
morning. We shall, please God, take our depar- 
ture in her for Alexandria, as soon as the Indian 
mail shall have arrived. Rabbi I , an en- 
graver, has presented us with two bottles of wine, 
which is not to be obtained here except through 
such friendly sources. Lemons also are very 

Among the objects which excited our curio- 


sity not the least remarkable was the dress of 
the female Druses, who wear a sort of horn, or 
trumpet, on the head, projecting in front so as to 
keep their veils from resting on their face. The 
instrument is made of metal resembling silver, 
and the women say that they wear it for the 
purpose of calling their husbands to their aid 
in time of danger, its sound being sufficiently 
powerful to be heard in the distant mountains. 

Mr. T , his sister-in-law, and two of his 

daughters visited us. 

Sunday, July 7. Beyrout. The English and 
French newspapers, with the calls of numerous 
visitors, among whom are the Austrian consul, the 
governor, a French gentleman from Kaifa, and 
others, greatly help to protect us against the 
incursions of ennui. All who converse with us 
loudly express their admiration of our courage 
and perseverance in accomplishing a journey in 
spite of obstacles presented by war, plague, 
brigands, and the intense heat of a Syrian 
summer. The Divine mercy has protected us 
against the dangers arising from these various 
sources of peril ; and we have now but to reflect 
with thankfulness on the opportunities afforded 
us of relieving the distresses of our brethren. 
Hhasan, Saad-Eddin, and Bekhor remain with 
us during our stay here, and Ibrahim, though 


our dinners and breakfasts are brought ready 
dressed from the town, will continue in our 
service till we return to Malta. 

Monday, July 8. Beyrout. My dear M 

finds himself much indisposed this morning. 
The effects of sickness are especially depressing 
in a foreign land, where climate, the habits of the 
people and a different mode of living tend so 
materially to cut off the relief and supports 
which may be had at home. Graciously has the 
Almighty aided me under trying circumstances., 
and bestowed a fortitude on me not natural to my 
disposition. In this, as in our former tour, I have 
felt my spirits rise as we have proceeded on our 
journey. For this I cannot be sufficiently grate- 
ful, and I trust that the voyage from this place 
will soon restore health and cheerfulness to my 
dear M . 

Mr. M , our consul, sent yesterday to ap- 
prise us of the hourly expected arrival of the 
Indian Mail, almost immediately after which the 
steamer will proceed to Alexandria and Malta. 
We are, therefore, again on the alert, preparing 
for our departure, and to-day sent a part of our 

luggage on board the Acheron. M also wrote 

to Mr. Young, the Consul at Jerusalem, forward- 
ing him some dollars one- third for the Christian 
Burial-ground, and two-thirds for the indigent 


Christians in the Holy City. He next wrote to 
Mr. Thomson, and sent him some money for the 
poor Christians of Beirout, an acknowledgment 
for the accommodation we had enjoyed in that 
gentleman's house. Nor has Mr. Amzalag been 
forgotten, to whom the promise for the poor 
Israelites of Jerusalem was repeated. 

Every day during our residence here I have 
received bouquets of carnations, roses, orange and 
lemon blossoms, the perfume of which is too 
powerful for even the unroofed hall. They are, 
therefore, placed on the balcony, and there 
mingle their odours with those of the countless 
flowers which fill the gardens around, and de- 
light me with their beauties as I recline on the 
sofa, prevented by the excessive heat from 
leaving the house. 

M - is full of plans for ameliorating the 
condition of the Jews in the Holy Land. He is 
most anxious to reach Alexandria, when he pur- 
poses, with the blessing of the Almighty, to make 
several proposals to Mehemet Ali : may they 
prove successful, then indeed shall we have 
been well repaid for any danger or anxiety en- 

Tuesday, July 9. Beyrout. M , thank the 

Almighty, is better. He to-day presented gifts to 
the three Rabbis who are to sail this afternoon for 


Jaffa, having taken charge of the money promised 
for the poor people of Jerusalem, and also for 
those of Hebron ; and gave our tents and mat- 
tresses, together with some clothing, for the use 
of the latter, to protect the more destitute of 
them from <?he miseries of the rainy season. 

A person called on us to-day on his return 
from Vienna, where he had been studying medi- 
cine ; and, according to the testimonials which he 
had received from eminent professors, with no 
slight degree of success. He was on his way 
to Jerusalem, where his return had been long 
expected by his wife and friends with intense 
anxiety. Many months had passed since they 
had heard any tidings of him ; and on the evening 
previous to our departure from Jerusalem, the 
poor woman came to us, weeping bitterly, and 
beseeching us to make inquiries respecting her 
husband, while her father-in-law added his en- 
treaties that we would allow him to accompany 
us. to Europe, that he might trace out, if possible, 
the sojourn of his son ! How will their grief be 
changed into joy when they behold him again, 
skilled in a profession that may tend to their in- 
dependence ! 

Wednesday, July 10. Beyrout. M , re- 
suming his industrious habit of writing before 
breakfast, has given happy indications of return- 


ing health. He was at this employment, when a 

note from Mr. K informed us of the arrival of 

the Indian mail, and of the preparation of the 
steamer to depart at two o'clock. This was fol- 
lowed by a letter from Mr. M , who advised 

us to go on board at one. Immediately all was 

bustle; but the usual eagerness of my dear M 

to be in time left little to arrange. What bag- 
gage remained was soon despatched. The task of 
leave-taking followed, and the Arab family who 
had charge of Mr. Thomson's house, and were 
really kind-hearted, well-conducted people, bade 
us farewell with many an expression of earnest 
feeling. The female was in delicate health, and 
had often spoken to us of her sickness, evidently 
hoping to hear of some remedy, the inhabitants 
of the East haying great confidence in the skill 
and knowledge of Europeans. I suffered greatly 
from the heat in walking to the wharf, whence 

Captain K 's boat conveyed us to the 

Acheron, a vessel of seven hundred and twenty 
tons, and one hundred and sixty horse power. 
There was a heavy, rolling sea, and it required 
all the ability of the officers to assist us to 
ascend. We were under weigh by seven o'clock. 
May the merciful Being who has hitherto pro- 
tected us still bestow His gracious aid ! 

Thursday and Friday, July 11 and 12. On 
z 2 


board the Acheron. The heavy sea of yesterday 
caused an uneasiness which obliged us to have 
our mattresses spread on deck, where I remained 
till nine o'clock, when I was handed down to my 
cabin, M remaining on deck all night, suf- 
fering as usual from the movement of the vessel, 
and the unpleasant attendants of smoke, oil, and 
steam. An Arab family suffered no less than our- 
selves two little children and the maid-servant 
especially the mamma, whose gold ornaments 
bedecking her head, neck, and arms, were suf- 
ficiently conspicuous, retained her usual health 

and spirits. M has gained little good from 

his repose on deck, and Ann continues so indis- 
posed that she has been obliged to consult the 
doctor of the ship. May he succeed in adminis- 
tering relief to our excellent and worthy servant ! 
We are going at the rate of seven or eight knots 
an hour, but the heavy swell of the sea renders 
one incapable of the exertion necessary to seek 

amusement. M happily employs his mind 

with the contemplation of plans that may 
improve the condition of our brethren. He 
intends passing the night again on deck. 

Saturday, July 13. Alexandria. Our voyage 
being brought to a happy termination, we pro- 
ceeded to the Hotel de 1 J Europe, which we find a 
very comfortable establishment. It is situated in 


the new square, which for extent and uniformity 
would not disgrace any city in Europe. The 
style of its architecture is French, but fragments 
of columns and beautiful capitals found in the 
environs, decorate many of the entrances. A 
fountain is being constructed in the centre of the 
square, and most of the consuls and the richest 
of the inhabitants have their residences here. 
Its situation, in the vicinity of the sea, renders it 
an agreeable evening promenade, and it is much 
frequented as a place of fashionable resort. 

I observed a far greater number of people in 
the European costume than on our former visit ; 
but this city always presents a motley group of 
all nations, and is just now more than ordinarily 
gay in consequence of the late victory. Even 
the firing is still continued, and the women and 
children parade the streets singing an Arab song 
of triumph. We received visits from the chiefs 
of our people, from the British consul, and other 

M went this morning, in a handsome 

sedan-chair, lent to him by the Sardinian consul, 
to pay his respects to the Pacha. He was ac- 
companied by Dr. Loewe, and met by appoint- 
ment, at the palace, Boghos Bey and Colonel 
Campbell, the British consul-general. He made 
in due form his intended request with regard to 


the cultivation of the Land in Palestine and 
Syria, to which he received a most favourable 
reply, with a promise that his highness would 

confirm it in writing. M also entreated 

the Pacha that the wall of Tiberias, which was 
destroyed by the earthquake, should be repaired, 

and to this his highness also assented. M 

then presented him with a medal, bearing a 
likeness of our most gracious Queen, which was 
struck by order of the authorities of the City of 
London, to commemorate her Majesty's visit to 
the Guildhall, on the 9th of November, 1837. He 
examined it attentively, and appeared pleased 

with it ; and having asked M if it was a 

good likeness of the Queen, thanked him for it. 

Mr. Waghorn paid us a long visit. He is most 
vsanguine as to the practicability of forming a 
road across the desert to India. 

Sunday, July 14. From Alexandria, on board 
the Steam-boat. We were so disturbed by mus- 
quitoes, during the night that scarcely an hour's 
rest was permitted us, and thankful we were for 
the return of day. 

The Pacha's boat was in readiness to convey 
us to the Acheron, which lay at anchor some 
distance off: the passage, however, was soon 
made, and we found ourselves safely seated on 
the spacious deck of this excellent steam-ship. 


As usual, it was long, that is, nearly three hours, 
before we weighed anchor. The Egyptian fleet 
was again in full view, presenting a noble 

Monday, July 15, on board the Acheron. Wind 
contrary, but proceeding at eight or nine knots 
an hour ; we all feel poorly. It will not suit 
fastidious people to travel in hot climates, espe- 
cially at sea. A degree of lassitude deprives one 
of energy to pursue any sort of occupation, at 
least so I found it. Byron and Campbell were 
brought ; they were looked into, then laid aside. 

Tuesday, July 16, on board the Acheron steam- 
boat. Still a contrary wind, but making rapid 
progress. The captain assures us a passage of 
less than five days. This is some consolation for 
sickness, especially when we remember our former 
voyage of twenty-four days. Thanks to the 
steam-boat establishment. The poor turtle, of 
which there are six on board, and turned on their 
backs, are fair objects of commiseration. In this 
position they can only move their paws, and are 
merely sustained by a little water occasionally 
thrown over them. Our chicken feast will termi- 
nate to-day, the supply brought from Alexandria 
being finished, and it is time it should be. In 
passing near the Isle of Candia this afternoon, 
our vessel rolled tremendously, and continued to 


do so for two or three hours. I remained on deck 
watching the silvery waves, and, invited by the 
tar^decked firmament and soft bright moon, 
seated myself on one of the benches, enveloped in 
my plaid mantle, which I have often found ser- 
viceable in no slight degree. Some of the gentle- 
men kept up a philosophical conversation till 
nearly twelve, interrupted occasionally by the 
stewardess coming to state the hour. 

Wednesday, July 17, on board the Acheron. 
We proceed to-day at the rate of eight and nine 

knots. M remains on deck both night and 

day. To-day we had our dinner served there ; 
but the salt-fish, eggs, and maccaroni, of which it 
chiefly consisted, could not tempt me. I also 
prudently refused to partake of some excellent 
melons offered us by our fellow-passenger, Mrs. 
T . This lady possesses an excellent o-arden 

/ JT 3 

near .Alexandria, comprising a hundred acres of 
ground, rented from the Pacha, with whom her 
husband is on intimate terms. The abilities of 
his highness are spoken of with admiration by 
many. He certainly has displayed great talent 
in warfare, and much energy of character in many 
of the improvements which he has introduced. 
Happy would it be were he to direct his mind 
more immediately to the moral amelioration, to 
the general civilization of his people, and the pro- 
tection of their property. 

MALTA. 345 

Thursday, July 18, on board the Acheron. 
The captain assures us that we shall arrive in the 
harbour of Malta before ten o'clock this evening. 
M has promised two gallons of spirits to the 
man who shall first descry land. I passed a very 
indifferent night, having suffered greatly from 
eating too freely of different sorts of melons, as 
well as from heat of the weather. I could not 
obtain any rest, and to-day have no appetite. 
The sofa-cushions are kindly ordered on deck by 
the captain, and these, with the lounging-chair, 

alternately serve to afford me repose. M 

treated the crew with a sheep and a double share 
of grog on entering the harbour of Malta before 
ten o'clock at night. 

Friday, July 19. Malta. Fort Manuel. 
Tranquillity reigning in the ship, I passed a 
pleasant night, and we all breakfasted with the 

captain in the cabin. M has been on shore 

to engage rooms in the lazaretto at fort Manuel, 
and also a guardiano and a lad to attend on us. 
Our late Maltese valet-de-place came in a boat 
alongside the ship, to solicit our re-acceptance of 
his services ; but as our domicile at Fort Manuel 
will necessarily be perfectly stationary and im- 
moveable, we shall find no occasion for his aid. 

At three o'clock we were stationed at our new 
temporary abode, having been put on shore by 


the boat of the Acheron. The captain presented 
us with six bottles of old port, and a turtle, in- 
tended to be presented to the governor, but which 
we could not send him, the sailor having killed it 
in bringing it on shore. 

Saturday, July 20. Fort Manuel. The ne- 
cessity of having all our trunks turned topsey 
turvey, and every article therein rummaged over 
by the guardiano, even to the smallest trinket, 
lest a piece of cotton should escape, has proved a 
great annoyance to the whole party, and rendered 
this, I may say, in reality a black Saturday. The 
quarantine regulations are much more severe than 
on our former visit, and are very strictly adhered 
to. A great privation is experienced in the with- 
drawal of the permission formerly granted to 
enjoy a boat in the harbour, and which afforded 
an infinite relief to the monotony of the seclu- 
sion. This tedious quarantine must certainly 
prove an impediment to general travelling in 
Egypt, and pernicious to the interests of that 
country, as well as to this island. But perhaps 
the infectious maladies to which warm climates 
are subject renders it a matter of imperative ne- 
cessity. We dined early, and took our fast at 
seven. Ann is very poorly. I trust that all the 
maladies and unpleasantnesses will subside and 
vanish away with Tishea-bedb. 

MALTA. 347 

Sunday, July 21. Malta. Fort Manuel. 
The extreme heat of the weather is almost insup- 
portable to-day, and fasting, of course, does not 
render us less sensible to its enervating effects. 
We are incapable of any application ; the book 
is taken up, and again laid down. Galignani 
affords some slight recreation. 

When captain and Mrs. C 's name were 

handed to us, it was with difficulty I could 
descend to the parlatorio to speak to them. It is 
in reality a fatiguing undertaking from the 

number of the stairs. M was incapable of 

moving a step. Scarcely had I returned, when 
Sir Hector Grey was announced, and again I had 
to recount the history of our journey in the Holy 
Land, of escaped perils, and of pleasures enjoyed. 
This gentleman recommends us to change our 
rooms, for though they are the most spacious in 
the building, still their southern aspect, and their 
being situated over the kitchen of the traiteur, 

are great objections. Mr. C has received 

orders to prepare the apartments lately inhabited 

by the Duke of D , said to be much cooler. 

We have just perceived three stars, and thank 
the Almighty for having allowed us to perform 
the duties of the day. 

Monday, July 22. Malta. Fort Manuel. 
Moved into the northern part of the palazzo, 


which we find more airy and agreeable, but the 
thermometer at two o'clock was again 87 in the 
shade. Dr. Loewe was taken very poorly, and 
obliged to go to bed ; so that, unfortunately, 
another is added to our list of invalids ; but I 
trust that all will soon be well again. The rocks, 
which almost surround the bay, greatly hinder 
the circulation of the air, and render Malta at 
this time of the year not the most desirable resi- 
dence. To be subject, therefore, to a prolonged 
quarantine of twenty days, is somewhat annoy- 
ing ; but we cannot have everything to suit our 
inclinations in this world, and it is best to submit 
with a good grace to that which it is not in our 
power to alter. Admiral Sir John Lewis paid 

us a visit, as did Mr. and Mrs. C and their 

daughter. Twelve years have changed the latter 
from a nice little girl into a handsome young 

lady. Captain K and his officers also called, 

and brought a copy of the log. All proffer their 

services with the greatest kindness. Mrs. C 

sent us some oranges, which the servant obtained 
from the governor's garden; a very acceptable 
present, there being no oranges at this season in 
the market. 

Tuesday, July 23. Fort Manuel We find our 
present suite of appartments much more desirable 
than those which we previously occupied, the 

MALTA. 349 

rooms and arcade extending all round the build- 
ing, commanding an extensive prospect, and the 
enjoyment of a free current of air. The key of the 
bastions we have- not yet made use of, our party 
nob being sufficiently recovered even to enjoy the 
exercise of a moonlight walk. Armstrong in- 
forms us the steam-boat from* Gibraltar has 
arrived in the harbour. We look anxiously at 
every sail in view while confined to this spot. Dr. 
Loewe continues poorly, attended with shivering 

and fever. M thought it advisable to send for 

the physician on the establishment. The captain 
of the guardiano was obliged to be apprised of 
it, and also of the necessity of our sending for 
another female attendant, as no one can be 
admitted without his knowledge. Four persons 
came with the doctor, who pronounced Dr. Loewe 
to have fever, and ordered him to be kept low. 
He also saw Ann, who is extremely weak and 
poorly. It was laughable to observe the cautious 
manner in which the Maltese gentlemen re- 
mained in the rooms, lest they should come in 

contact with any of us. M felt Ann's pulse 

for the physician. 

Wednesday, July 24. Fort Manuel. Sir John 
Lewis paid us a visit at the parlatorio this 
morning. I found it very fatiguing to go down 
so many steps to receive him, but it was requisite 
to exert myself, I being the only one of the party 


capable of it. Dr. Loewe's fever again returned 
about the same hour as yesterday, with the 
shivering. Ann is not any better. The doctor 
came late ; he says she may not take any wine, 
but only cool drink and arrow-root. Sir Hector 
Grey has sent us a present of syrup of vinegar 

made at Rome,*and Signor L has also sent 

a large hamper filled with salt fingeres, sausages, 
liqueurs, and a gilt glass vase filled with sweet- 
meats. We have a person come to do the wash- 
ing, who remains on the establishment the whole 
of the quarantine, as no one who once enters and 
comes in contact is allowed to leave during the 
twenty days. I regret that our clothes cannot 
be sent to the excellent Valetta laundresses. 

Thursday, July 25. Fort Manuel. The French 
steam-boat has arrived, also the Megara, Cap- 
tain G , from Gibraltar. The former states 

that the Turkish* Capit^n Pacha has delivered up 
the Turkish fleet to Ali Pacha, and that it is now 
in the harbour of Alexandria. Previously to our 
departure from that port, it was confidently 
reported that such would be the case, as the 
prime minister at Constantinople was at variance 
with the Capitan Pacha, and the latter would 
not submit to his government. 

I have been for some time watching an im- 
mense number of black rats, as large as small 
cats, running about the fortress. I trust they 

MALTA 351 

will not reach our windows and invade our apart- 
ments, for we are compelled to have the windows 
open at night, notwithstanding musquitoes and 
other intruders. The spacious lazaretto is now 
completely full. Among the last arrivals was a 
Catholic archbishop and suite. We did not see 
any one to-day but the physician, who finds his 
patients improved. The abstemious regimen 
seems to succeed. We took tea on the arcade, 
where we remained till twelve o'clock, the light 
of the moon and stars producing a lustre equal 
to that of day. 

Friday, July 26. Fort Manuel Wrote to 

Mrs. P and Mrs. M'G in reply to their 

letters of inquiry. The Acheron departed about 
one o'clock this forenoon. The number of small 
pleasure-boats, with awnings, rowing about the 
harbour, makes me envy the refreshing exercise, 
and feel painfully the privation created by the 
existing quarantine laws. The doctor just now 
reports favourably of his two patients, so that 
we no longer entertain apprehensions of a longer 
detention here, though the guardiano and 
traiteur, perhaps, would not object to it. The 
weather not being so sultry to-day, makes the 

confinement less tedious. M even begins to 

be more reconciled, and says it will soon pass. 
A large French vessel has just arrived in the 
harbour from Marseilles, and various reports are 


afloat, as usual. Certainly the Pacha of Egypt 
has proved himself a successful warrior, for 
having vanquished the Turkish army, the fleet 
now surrenders to his power. Some of our new 
quarantine neighbours amused themselves with 
singing and music during the evening. Un- 
luckily we do not derive the same pleasure 
which they seem to obtain from the wiry and 
discordant sounds of an indifferent violin. 

Saturday, July 27. Fort Manuel The French 
packet-boat has arrived, bringing Galignani's 
papers to the 17th. The news of the Sultan's 
death had reached London and Paris. We are 
to have pratique on the 6th of August, including 
in the twenty days the day of arrival and the 
day of departure, by order of Admiral Sir John 

L . Mrs. C has lent us a very convenient 

machine for ice-water. It is made of tin, shaped 
like a tea-urn. The ice is placed where the 
heater would be put, and merely by turning the 
spout, we have refreshing water on our table all 

We walked up and down the terrace in the 
evening, but the rays of the moon were almost 
as hot as those of the sun, and it wore a red cast. 
The air was exceedingly sultry. A barge, illu- 
minated most brilliantly, with a large party, and 
a military band on board, was impelled along the 
harbour by several small boats, with a single 

MALTA. 353 

large light in each. Tranquilly they glided 
along the surface of the water, and presented a 
very beautiful appearance. 

The doctor finds his patients improved, but 
Ann is still in bed. She has had a tedious 
and serious indisposition, but I trust before 
we are allowed pratique, she will be perfectly 

Sunday, July 28. Fort Manuel. It is reported 
that there are 150,000 Russian troops at Con- 
stantinople. This confirms the rumours at 
Alexandria. The political horizon is cloudy and 
threatening, and whether the atmosphere will 
recover its serenity without some severe storm, 
time only can determine. There are about three 
hundred and fifty persons at present performing 
quarantine here : of these two hundred and forty 
are pilgrims from Mecca, &c., the remainder are 
from various parts of the world. It is so well 
arranged, that each party has a separate apart- 
ment, and is not inconvenienced by others ; in 
fact we seldom see any of them, there being 
sufficient space for exercise for all. It must 
afford a great deal of employment and profit to 
the Maltese, as a guardiano must be engaged to 
every new arrival. We again drank tea, and 
passed the evening on the balcony. A party of 
gentlemen amused themselves with cricket on the 

A A 


fort. Some sang, others played the flute. The 
number of boats, with parties and lights in each, 
gliding along the glassy waters, formed an agree- 
able variety to the scene. We retire about 
eleven, though I am afraid of sitting in a room 
with lights, lest they should attract the mos- 
quitoes, already sufficiently numerous. 

Monday July 29. Fort Manuel, At an early 
hour we were awoke by the firing of cannon. 
Various were the cries in answer to our inquiries 
respecting the occasion. Some said it was in 
consequence of the arrival of the son of the King 
of France, &c. At length the true reason was 
discovered, it was the anniversary of the three 

The Hebrew letters, descriptive of the Holy 
Land, and the mode of cultivation, &c., are being 
translated into English by Dr. Loewe. They 
contain a great deal of useful information.* Mr. 

and Mrs. C , who are just returned from 

Gaza, visited us to-day. They remark, that the 
heat this summer is greater than in ordinary 
years ; the thermometer at Valetta on Saturday 
last was 94, here it was from 82 to 87, there 
being a refreshing breeze. In the evening we 
heard some good singing from our neighbours in 
quarantine, a large party of French, English, and 
* See Appendix. 


Italians. They have a piano, flute, and violin. 
Some of them have good voices and sing well, 
the ladies taking their part. 

The music continued till ten o'clock ; I retired 
half an hour after. M has regained his in- 
dustrious habits, which I am always accustomed 
to regard as a good sign of returning health. 

A supply of ice is furnished twice a day. It is 
brought from the mountains, and affords a large 
revenue to the contractor. 

Tuesday, July 30. Fort Manuel. I regret to 
say Ann has passed a very indifferent night. Our 
numerous friends continue to support their well- 
merited character for hospitality ; but we are so 
carefully attended to by the traiteur and Mrs. 

A that we need to accept only oranges and 

" Galignani." 

Wednesday, July 31. Fort Manuel. Ann still 
continues very ill. I trust she will be so far 
recovered by Tuesday as to be able to leave the 
lazaretto, and go with us in the steamer. At 
present there are about three hundred pilgrims 
performing quarantine. It is also expected that 
there will shortly be a great number of arrivals 
from India, the difficulty of crossing the desert 
being so much diminished. Ann finds the pain 
which she suffered removed since the application 
of leeches this afternoon ; and having taken the 
AA 2 


prescribed medicine, she has fallen asleep, and 
continued tranquil all the evening. 

Thursday, August 1. Fort Manuel. Alas ! that 
I should have to record the death of our poor 
servant, Ann Flinn. How delighted she was at 
the idea of visiting Jerusalem, and when, by the 
mercy of our Divine Protector we reached that 
city, how earnest, how grateful were her expres- 
sions of joy that she had the privilege of visiting 
the sepulchre which her religion sanctified ! She 
spoke this morning of the feeling with which 
she had been impressed on contemplating the 
scenes so dear to her thoughts, and referred to a 
memorandum in her Prayer-Book, dated Mount 
of Olives, 10th of June, when she had read the 
twentieth Psalm, " which," she added, " is most 
beautiful." These were her last words, and she 
expired about two o'clock. 

Dr. Loewe, on looking into her chamber at 
his usual early hour, was greatly shocked to 
perceive so evident and sudden a change, for, 
according to the account of two females who 
remained with her, she had slept throughout the 
night. He found her hands and feet cold, her 
eyes fixed, and the pulse scarcely perceptible. 
The physician of the lazaretto, on being imme- 
diately sent for, expressed his apprehension to 
my dear M , who hastened to her room. She 


remarked that she must be greatly worse, for 
that Dr. Loewe seemed frightened and red in the 

face. Wishing to divert her attention M 

inquired respecting her family, and on noticing 
the memorandum in the Prayer-Book, observed, 
" You prize your Prayer-Book as well as I do 
mine." When I went into the room she told me 
she had passed a very good night. An English 
physician accompanied the other on his second 

visit, and the Rev. Mr. C also visited her ; 

but consciousness soon ceased, and she expired 
without a groan. We have lost a faithful and 
affectionate attendant, and one whose gentleness 
of disposition and propriety of conduct endeared 
her to the whole party. 

In this climate the interment takes place the 
day after the decease. The medical man returned 
in the afternoon, and gave a certificate that poor 
Ann's death was not caused by the plague, but by 
a pulmonary affection. They wished to remove 
the corpse immediately to a magazine below, but 
we objected to this, and in the evening proceeded 
with the physician, the guardiano, &c., in boats to 
the lazaretto burying-ground, to select a grave. 
Many were already dug! 

Friday, August 2. Fort Manuel Just returned 
from fulfilling the last duties to poor Ann ! The 
ceremony was deeply affecting, and well calcu- 


lated to inspire solemn convictions of the vanity 
of the world and its concerns. At six in the morn- 
ing we set off in boats, the physician, the clergy- 
man, and clerk having respectfully arrived to 
attend us. The two captains, the guardiano, and 
Armstrong were also present. A basket of quick- 
lime being ready, the lid of the coffin was re- 
moved, and the lime poured upon the body. The 
countenance of the departed was thinner than in 
life, but calm and placid. Peace be to her. In 
half an hour her mortal remains would become 
like the dust spread over them. May her 
Heavenly Father receive her spirit with forgive- 
ness ! 

Saturday, August 3. Fort Manuel If ever I 
experienced the happiness of the Sabbath it was 
to-day. I sought and found rest to the mind ; 
a charm to the spirits, and a happy feeling of 
resignation to the will of our Heavenly Father. 
Yesterday we were oppressed at the apparent 
sudden demise of our poor servant. This day 
gives us leisure to acknowledge the mercy of 
Providence in enabling us to reach a place where 
medical aid could be procured, where we are sur- 
rounded by English people, and where the inter- 
ment of the deceased could be attended with all 
the decencies of religion. Happy, indeed, is the 
day of rest when the mind can correct its way- 


ward ness, and become more and more sensible, 
that trust in God is the only sentiment which 
can enable us to deduce good from evil, and ani- 
mate and strengthen the hopes of a blessed futu- 

Some difficulty was started respecting our 
passport, in consequence of its being lined with 
cloth. They wish us to have a new one to pass 
the quarantine, for engaging places in the French 
steam -boat for next Tuesday, when we hope to 
have pratique. By speaking, however, to Mr. 

C the objection was removed. We walked 

in the evening on the terrace. 

Sunday, August 4. Fort Manuel. We appro- 
priated the whole of the forenoon to prepara- 
tions fortaking pratique. The Lycurgus steam- 
boat starts on Tuesday, and will put into Civita 
Vecchia, where we left our carriage, and whence 
we purpose proceeding by the same vessel to 
Marseilles. There are forty-five new arrivals 
to-day at the quarantine, among which are the 
French ambassador and suite from Corfu. 

Being greatly fatigued with the heat of the 
weather, we took courage and walked some time 
on the ramparts. This was the first time we 
availed ourselves of the advantage of having the 
key at our command. All the apartments of the 
Lazaretto were lighted up, and the edifice pre- 


sented a gay and festive appearance. Some of 
the newly-arrived were occupied with spreading 
out their effects, while others amused themselves 
with the more pleasurable exercises of music 
and singing, promenading, or with the yet more 
substantial enjoyments of the table. 

Monday, August 5. Fort Manuel We are 
pleased, in no slight degree, with the prospect 
of quitting the Lazaretto to-morrow morning. 
Though this is the best establishment of the 
kind, possessing the advantages of a beautiful 
situation, and being of great extent, the heat of 
the climate, and the surrounding white walls, 

often led M to speak of it as a prison. In 

the evening we went to see the tombstone 
erected to the memory of poor Ann Flinn, and 
had the vexation to find it and the inscription 
but very indifferently executed. 

Tuesday, August 6. This morning at half -past 
six we had the gratification to leave the quaran- 
tine harbour ; but our pleasure was mingled with 
pain, for one who had shared in the toils and de- 
lights of our pilgrimage was now mingled with 
the dust. 

The captain of the Lazaretto had behaved with 
great attention and politeness during the whole 

of our abode there, and M , on taking 

leave, presented him with a douceur in acknow- 


ledgment of his civility ; but he declined accept- 
ing it, observing that he was not allowed to 
receive any present. 

We found the caleche waiting for us according 
to order, and were soon once more in the streets of 
Valetta, through which the air was blowing 
freshly, as if to inspire us with a quicker sense 
and enjoyment of recovered freedom. We were 
set down at Durnsford's hotel, and then has- 
tened to the house of prayer, to offer our devout 
thanks to the merciful and Almighty Being who 
had so continually protected, guided, and com- 
forted us. 

Wednesday, August 7. During a farewell call 
on the governor his excellency said he had heard 
of us, both during and after our journey. We 
were now ready to bid adieu to the hospitable 
isle, and were followed by a host of lame and 
blind, old and young, to the Custom-house stairs, 
down which we stepped, probably for the last 
time, into the boat, in which Dr. Loewe was 
already seated. We were soon on board the 
French steamer, the neat appearance of which 
excited our admiration. It was twelve o'clock 
before she started, two hours having been lost 
in waiting for a passenger, who being extremely 
deaf could not understand the summons to 
hasten on board, though observing from the 
shore the busy preparations for departure. 


Some rolling and threatening white clouds, 
with a brisk breeze, made us fear a squall ; nor 
did the answers of the officers to our inquiries 
tend to dissipate our apprehensions. But lying 
down on the benches, enveloped in our mantles, 
we soon forgot, in tranquil sleep, the dread of 
storms and every other danger. 

Thursday, August 8. On board the Lycurgm. 
Before daylight this morning I was awakened 
by a noise which I imagined was occasioned by 
the pouring of cinders into the sea. The noise, 
however, becoming louder and louder, I began to 
calculate the lavish waste of the government 

stores, when M 's voice, and the exhortation 

not to be alarmed, made me open my eyes. I 
instantly perceived flashes of lightning of awful 
vividness, followed by loud and frequent peals of 
thunder. The cabin also was by this time almost 
inundated with rain ; and at the vociferous com- 
mand of the steward and captain, two or three 
men, sans certmonie, entered the cabin to cover the 
skylight. We were now near Cape Passero, and 
the water- spouts and storms of our former voyage 
came forcibly to our memory. The terrors of 
that period were happily not renewed. This 
was but a summer tempest. The thunder and 
lightning cleared the atmosphere of yesterday's 
sultry heat, and again the firmament blessed the 


sight with its celestial and brightening blue. I 
dressed and went on deck, when a clear view of 
the city of Messina presented itself; the noble 
row of houses, just commenced on our previous 
visit, now forming a fine embellishment to the 
shore, while the mountains of Sicily on the one 
side, and those of Calabria on the other, gave to 
the whole scene a character of grandeur and 
sublimity. About two o'clock the cloud-capped 
top of Stromboli offered itself to view ; and not 
long after, as we sailed round the island, the 
crater became distinctly visible. 

The afternoon was fine, but we had again 
much lightning in the evening. 

Friday, August 9. On board the Lycurgus. 
We have just passed the Lipari Isles, and Ischia, 
Vesuvius, and the small towns at its foot have sue- 
cessively presented themselves to view. Towards 
evening a dark cloud overspread the heavens, and 
took from our sight the brilliant stars which had 
just before lit up the sea with their soft and cheer- 
ing rays. I dreaded the approach of a storm, and 
though we had to encounter only an increase of 
the breeze, the creaking and rolling of the vessel 
exposed me to much suffering, and I remained 
on deck till near eleven. 

Saturday, August 10. Harbour of Civita Vecchia. 
The rolling and creaking of the ship continued 


throughout the night, and almost deprived me of 
sleep. At dawn of day we anchored in this har- 
bour, and having received the visits of several 
friends who came on board to offer their congra- 
tulations, sailed again at two o'clock for Mar- 
seilles, where, by the mercy of our Divine Pro- 
tector, we arrived safely, and in health and spirits. 
Thus terminated a tour, every day employed in 
which furnished us with proofs equally affecting 
and instructive of the Divine mercy, and at the 
same time with the most profitable incentives to 
the exercise of thought. May the gratification 
experienced during the prosecution of the journey 
produce in our minds the permanent fruits of a 
more perfect devotion to the Almighty, and of a 
yet clearer and clearer apprehension of the way 
in which we may best fulfil his will, and perfect 
the designs which he had in our creation. 







Btmng fjis sojourn tfjcre. 


SUFFICIENT has been said in the preceding pages to intimate 
to the reader that the journey, of which they offer a faint 
record, was not undertaken with a mere selfish purpose. The 
object contemplated was one in which humanity and religion 
are equally interested, and to the success of which scarcely 
any mind of ordinary benevolence can be entirely indifferent. 
In the course of her narrative the writer of the Journal has 
alluded to this subject with such particularity as the extent 
of her notes would allow ; but it is a matter of so much 
importance, and possessing so many claims to attention, that 
she avails herself of the existence of some original documents 
and letters to exhibit, in the most authentic manner, the sen- 
timents with which Sir Moses Montefiore's plans and efforts 
were met by those for whose benefit they were designed. 




To our Lord, who is the crown of our head ; who, by His 
virtuous and noble deeds, is most distinguished amongst 
men, SIR MOSES MONTEFIORE. May his light shine for 
ever ! May the Almighty will it to be so. AMEN. 

Blessed be our God ; for His mercy to those that fear Him 
has been abundant, and in our dire distress He remembered 
how deeply we had drunk from the cup of misfortune. We 
have now seen that Israel is not left in widowhood, for there 
are still men of high repute who are ready to strengthen 
those whose hands are weak and whose feet are unstable, 
that they may obtain the favour of the Creator (to whom be 
all glory for ever and ever). 

These lines are designed to express to your honour our 
gratitude for the beneficial light which we, in common with 
all our brethren in the Holy City, have derived from your 
very liberal succour. For the good which your deeds con- 


veyed, the poor in this land humbly, and with the most 
fervent feeling, proffer you their thanks. And on behalf of 
that class we have now to entreat your honour's most par- 
ticular attention, to the end that your honour's compassion 
may be kindly shown them. You, Sir, have doubtless heard 
of, and probably have also seen their afflicting poverty, and 
their generally wretched condition. There are amongst them 
some who wish for assistance in the way of employment, no 
matter in what it may consist, and in the height of their 
distress they humbly pray your honour to create it for them. 
They would most gladly engage in agricultural occupations, 
or become shepherds, although they have hitherto had no 
experience in such pursuits ; yet, impelled by their poverty 
and their fervid attachment to this land, in which they wish 
ever to dwell, they would apply themselves to such with 
indefatigable assiduity. 

The persons just referred to venture humbly to petition 
your honour to buy, or to hire, a piece of fertile land, consist- 
ing either of vineyards or olive-plantations, according as you 
may be able to treat for such with the governors of this region, 
and to place the same in the hands of those who are disposed 
as we have related ; so that by rearing cattle, or other em- 
ployments in connection with the soil, they may establish 
means for their own maintenance. For those who are learned 
in our sacred ordinances, and who devote themselves to the 
study thereof, we entreat that they may be enabled, as here- 
tofore, to continue their studies, by the wonted protection and 
support of our honoured benefactor (may your life ever be an 
object of the Almighty's especial care), so that by this project 
the worship of our God may in nowise fall off, nor the know- 
ledge of the holy law be diminished. By this means will Sir 
Moses strengthen our tottering knees the poor who by 
their extreme penury are in danger of sinking to the earth. 
uch an action will assuredly be looked upon by the Almighty 
as one of sacred merit, and will remain before him as a 


memorial by which the horn of your honour will be elevated 
till the arrival of the great and righteous Redeemer. 
Signed by 

ABRAHAM DOB, from Awaritsh, Chief Rabbi. 



DOB BERISH, from Bad. 

POSTSCRIPT. We, the undersigned, also declare that our 
mouths are filled with praise, even as the depths are filled 
with water, and our tongues are laden with rejoicings to the 
Almighty (blessed be his name), for that he did not leave us 
without a redeemer (protector), whom we have found in our 
lord, Sir Moses Montefiore : he who seeks righteousness, and 
shows compassion to the suffering, and endeavours, with un- 
remitting energy, to promote the happiness of his people, 
and who is to them as a strong tower of defence. May his 
glory be elevated, for he withheld not his benevolence and 
his friendship from his brethren from the nation of the 
Almighty and his inheritance. 

His eyes have been cast upon this land in order to its being 
cultivated by our brethren. Thus will he fortify the cities of 
the pious and the learned, who are, alas ! like broken vessels 
(to which sad condition, we fear, our sins have provoked the 
Almighty to reduce us). Our benefactor, wishing to preserve 
them from utterly perishing, has devised a plan for securing a 
comfortable subsistence for those that remain ; which is, that 
every one should labour in some one branch of the business of 
agriculture. By this means they will all be provided with a 
maintenance from their own industry. Thus, also, will the 
Holy City be preserved, for the learned and their pupils will 
continue to devote their mental powers to cultivating the 
knowledge of the holy law, and the worship of the Almighty, 
whilst the ordinary people will perform their due tasks in the 
field, and bring food for their families from the fruits of the 
B B 


field and vineyard with which the Almighty may have blessed 

The effects of your plan, Sir Moses, will prove of the 
utmost importance ; they will become to you as a thousand 
shields, which will ward off all ills from your life and peace. 

May your dignity never decay. By the abundance of this 
good, many will, under the Almighty's blessing, live to 
enjoy it. 

Written in the year " Happy art thou, and it shall be well 
with thee." 

Signed by the principals of the Portuguese congregation 
at Zafed. 








Statement of the 

extent of each 

Number of places 

Names of Vil- 
lages in the 
< icinity of 
Zafed, under 
the Governor 
of that Town. 

Field, and the 
quantity of 
Grain required 
for sowing each 
Field, which is 
known by the 
number of the 

The length and 
breadth of each 
Field, shown by 
the number of 
hours occupied 
in walking 
through it. 

Statement of what 
Wells and Rivers irri- 
gate the Fields favour- 
able for the forming of 
Gardens or Parks. 

in the same dis- 
trict which have 
no constant sup- 
ply of Water, 
but which are 
well adapted for 
the cultivation 

Fadans em- 

of Vines and 



Timnai . . 

40 Fadans 

22 22 

A large river 

and 2 wells. 



Kharis . . 


do. do. 



Miroon . . 

30 ditto. 

2 3 

The river Me- 

gidu and 2 



Tattaf . . 

25 ditto. 

1 2 

1 large well 

and 2 others. 


* Fadan is a term which, in the neighbourhood of Zafed, signifies two oxer, 
but in the neighbourhood of Acre it signifies three. Its general signification in 
Arabic is " an ox attached to the plough," and thence it is used to denote a 
certain quantity of ground to be tilled, or the course of tillage. 

B B 2 



Names of 

Number of 
Fadans for each 

Length and 
breadth of Field 
shown by hours. 

Wells and Rivers. 

Number o i 
places fit for 
Vineyards, &c. 

Kadita . . 

25 Fadans. 

1 2 


Goosh Kha- 

30 ditto. 

2 3 

1 stream & 1 well 


25 ditto. 

1 2 



25 ditto. 

1 2 


Ras Kha- 

25 ditto. 

1 2 

Tetaba . . 

40 ditto. 

2 3 


Dalata . . 

20 ditto. 

1 2 



50 ditto. 

3 4 


Amooka . . 

10 ditto. 

1 1 

1 large well & Ismail 



Mirnet, Al- 
ba & neigh- 
bourhood . 

100 ditto. 

6 8 

1 large well 


Kabea . . 

50 ditto. 

3 4 

4 wells 


amgar . . 

30 ditto. 

2 3 

12 wells 


Feram . . 

30 ditto. 

2 3 

5 wells & 1 river 



Ganeana . . 

30 ditto. 

2 3 

ebi, and 
Aniktela . 

35 ditto. 

2 3 

4 wells 


& Arshda . 

3 ditto. 

2 3 

3 wells 




THE SOUTH OF ZAFED continued. 

Names of 

Number of 
Fadaiis for each 

Length and 
breadth of Field 
shown by hours. 

Wells and Rivers. 

Number of 
places fit for 
Vineyards, &c. 


3 Fadans. 

2 3 

5 wells 


Eyn Zetoon 

3 ditto. 

2 3 

1 large well 



40 ditto. 

2 3 


Aptekha . . 

50 ditto. 

6 8 

2 rivers 


Khoula . . 

100 ditto. 

12 16 

2 rivers 


bria, and 
Notem . . 

2 ditto. 

1 2 


Agayar . . 

3 ditto. 

2 3 


Total Num- 
ber of 

Total of 

Length com- 
puted by 
hours, 66. 
Breadth by 
the same, 36. 

Total number 
of Gardens, 

Total of 
places fit for 
vineyards or 
olive plan- 
tations, 365. 

The villages here named pay to the pasha in coin, one 
hundred and eighty thousand piastres ; also three hundred 
garas of wheat, which is equal to thirty thousand Egyptian 
" roobas ; " five hundred garas of barley, equal to fifty thou- 
sand Egyptian roobas ; and for each head, moreover, thirty- 
three piastres. 


These, in the following year, will be lessened by one-half. 
After a lapse of four or five years they might be much 
further diminished by the productions of the gardens and 


For the purchase of both wheat and barley seed for 

nine hnndred and fifty fadans .... 28,275 

Materials for the cultivation of the gardens and 
vineyards, including wheat, barley, and lentils . 52,625 
Wages of the labourers . . . . 23,275 

Total .... 75,900 

The purchase of lentil-seed, of each kind two kilas, would 
amount, for each f adan seven karas,* to 6,500. 

The formation of each garden will cost one hundred karas; 
and, with God's permission, we shall renew six, 3,600. 

The making of a fence around each vineyard costs at least 
fifty talaries, (Spanish karas,) and the number altogether 
which we intend, with God's help, to cultivate being three 
hundred and eighty-five, the expense will be 10,250 talaries. 

I have not mentioned the price of oxen and agricultural 
implements, because Sir Moses said that the requisite imple- 
ments should be sent hither from England ; and my humble 
opinion is, that it would be the most beneficial to give the seed 
to the proprietors of the villages, and to furnish them with 
the amount of their expenses as a loan. If that were done, 
they would supply oxen and agricultural tools ; and, with 
God's blessing, thence forward our own earnings would pro- 
bably cover all further expenses ; in that respect our share 
would equal that of the peasants, but the pasha's dues would 
have to be paid before any division could take place. 

I have now to inform Sir Moses of the conditions into 
which it is essential he should cause the pasha to enter : 
without them the proposed plan cannot be put into operation. 

1st. The pasha must station persons of tried courage to 
protect each village, and the places belonging thereto, in 
accordance with the custom observed in the time of Abdalla 
Pasha, at the villages here named : Gesser Benat Jacoob, 

* Kara signifies a Spanish dollar. 


Keshoor Joosif , Khan el Mina, and Shoonat El Moghrebin, in 
the district of Senin ; and also at Zafed and Malkha. 

2nd. These guards must always be in attendance when the 
labourers are reaping the corn on the fields, or are otherwise 
employed, in order to prevent anything from being stolen or 
unlawfully removed. 

3rd. Neither the Moudir of Acre, nor the Mousselim of 
Zafed, shall have any power to interfere with the cultivators, 
or with the people of the villages. (This clause is necessary 
to prevent any occasion arising for bribing those parties : 
because the money so given to them generally amounts to a 
higher sum than that exacted by the pasha.) The money to 
be paid to the pasha shall be taken from those only who are 
really engaged with the fields, and not from the mere resi- 
dents of the villages : the payment to be made between the 
first month of Tamooz and the termination of the second, the 
period of the harvest. 

4th. The pasha shall guarantee that none of the cultivators 
shall be forced into the military service. This condition will 
incite the labourers to toil unremittingly. But if it should 
not be G-od's pleasure for Sir Moses to be so successful, it will 
be necessary that the pasha should, at least, order that none 
be taken for soldiers during the harvest season ; and that 
the sheikh of the village only should be empowered to select 
the men required. The result of this stipulation would be, 
that the men most suitable for the tillage would not be 

5th. The cultivators shall pay the pasha's dues in cash, 
instead of wheat and barley ; otherwise in the measure 
termed the rooba of Acre. This condition is of much impor- 

6th. Such productions of the country as shall be sent from 
one place to another by sea shall be free from any duty. 

7th. No Arabs shall be allowed to dwell in the vicinity of 
the fields, unless security be had from them that they pay 


for any damage done to the soil or crops. (The Arabs are 
accustomed to turn their cattle loose upon the cultivated 
land, whereby the seed is destroyed.) 

8th. All the foregoing conditions must be written in Arabic 
or Turkish, and sealed with the seal of Mohammed Ali, and 
copies delivered to the cultivators, so that by exhibiting such 
documents they may protect themselves from loss in times of 

9th. A sum of twenty-five piastres shall be paid annually 
for each vineyard, and for each garden fifty piastres, for 
which Sir Moses would hold possession of them in perpetuity. 
(The rent would not be excessive if more than that should be 
paid ; but any payment must be subject to the foregoing 

The division of the profits arising from the arrangements 
in question should be divided in the manner presently stated. 
It is incumbent on me to entreat, a thousand times, pardon 
from Sir Moses for the liberty I have taken in making this 
proposal ; and when I consider what affability and kindness 
we have witnessed in Sir Moses, and that in this matter I 
seek to preserve this holy spot from desolation, I trust that I 
shall be fully pardoned. 

One-third of the gross profits must be devoted to the pay- 
ment of the taxes ; the remaining two-thirds must be dis- 
tributed thus : one-third to the Israelites who undertake the 
work, the second third to the Israelitish servants employed 
therein, and to pay 5 per cent, interest to the parties who 
advanced the money for the execution of this scheme ; and 
the remaining third to those who devote themselves to the 
study of the law. 

I have given my information in as brief a manner as I 
could, for I did not like to dwell on the subject at length, 
because other people- might say enviously, " We could have 
set forth those matters as well as he." For this reason I 
have also withheld any information respecting several minor 


These are the words of one who has faith in the 



The British Agent at Acre. 


The undermentioned localities are not very productive : 
G-ermek, Miroon, Sammui, Safsaf , Tetaba, Kadita, Gisg, Caffr 
Berai'm, Ras el Akhmar, Ein Zetoon, Biria, Daria Takhte, 
and Daria Foka. 

In the vicinity of these villages a small quantity of white 
grain and peas only can be sown. A fadan consists of two 
oxen, to which is attached one labourer, who takes the 
fourth part of the produce, one hundred piastres, and the 
oil. Foreigners pay two hundred, or two hundred and fifty 
piastres for each fadan during the year. 

The district of Jakook and Abusciuscia have some good 
land. In Abusciuscia may be sown rice, yellow grain, sumson, 
and every kind of herb desirable for use, because the ground 
is well watered. The available land there may be computed 
by about one hundred fadans. The major part of the popu- 
lation there consists of Arabs, and they pay in taxes only 
eighteen thousand piastres per annum, and one cantar of 

The undermentioned villages are in the environs of 
Tabaria El Megdel, Tabariade, and Hattin. These places 


have good land, the produce of which is equal to that of the 
terrain of Acre, except in regard to cotton and sumson. El 
Megdel produces rice. A foreigner undertaking the cultiva- 
tion of any land here has to pay three hundred piastres for 
each fadan. During the summer the oxen have not much 
work to do. The inhabitants of these places are chiefly 
Moslemin, with a few Christians intermingled. 

The lands belonging to the villages mentioned in the 
following are fruitful, and their cultivation is vested in the 
Moodir of Acre. 

Menscia, situated ten minutes' distance from Acre, on a 
large plain ; it employs eighty fadans, each consisting of 
three oxen, two of which work together, being alternately 
relieved every two hours by the third. The soil produces, in 
the winter, wheat, barley, beans, lentils, and peas ; and in the 
summer, cotton, sodi, sumson, white dura, or grain, cucum- 
bers, popy, and cucumbers of other kinds called cetriuolo, and 
also various kinds of herbs. The persons from whom the 
ground is hired are Ibrahim Agha and Tatar Agasi. They 
exact from the tenants, the labouring peasant having to 
furnish a third part of the produce, but nothing more. The 
purchase of seed, and the hiring of fadans, for the first year 
would cost from two thousand to five thousand piastres. 

The following villages are situate at from one to three 
hours' distance from Acre : Kaffr Joosif, Damoon, Sciab, 
Cabool, Schef amar, Megdel, El Shiams. The product of these 
localities is similar to that of Menscia. A foreign cultivator 
has to pay rent at the rate of three hundred piastres per fadan. 
The population is composed of Moslemin, Christians, and 
Druses ; but at Kaffr Joosif and Shefamar, there are a few 
Israelites. The contributions of these villages to the govern- 
ment revenue are in wheat, barley, and money, as was the 
custom formerly. They must also comply with any demand 
made by government for camels, horses, &c. Such additional 
contributions are supplied from the residue of the value of the 


produce, and are borne equitably by the inhabitants, divided 
by the fadan. The chief of the village is entitled to two 
fadans, clear of all expense, that of conveying the article 
into his store-houses included. 

Very fruitful years occasionally occur, when the ground 
yields, in the winter, eight or ten times the ordinary quantity ; 
and in summer the proportion of fifty to thirty. The peasant 
that works on the land in Bouy is obliged to sow exactly what 
the master directs him, and for his wages he takes one-fifth of 
the produce, one hundred piastres, his maintenance, and two 
rottles of oil, but nothing more. If the harvest be particularly 
abundant the master must employ other men to assist him. 
They receive three piastres per day, with bread and water. 


Three oxen . . . . .900 

Agricultural implements . . .60 

Grain for seed one grara* of barley, and half 

a grara of beans .... 450 

One kila of peas . . . . .60 

Half a kila of lentils . . . .15 

Cotton-seed, twenty mozinf . . .100 


One mid of sumson-seed, and three mid of dura 20 
Wages to the labourer or harrat . . 100 

Food for the oxen, with seed for cotton or 
beans . . . . . .80 

A sack . . . . . .250 

Which amount, added to the preceding, 
makes ...... 2,035 

* A grara contains twelve kilas ; one kila contains six mids ; one mid 
four rottles, or eight okas ; one oka is equivalent to four hundred 

t A mozin contains ten okas. 




. 600 to 800 
. 500 to 600 
, 200 to 300 

A good camel for burthens, from 
A mare .... 
A good milk-cow . 

A sheep for milk* 
A she-goat 

40 to 
35 to 


Computed by the number of Fadans. 

Menscia . . . . . .80 

El Biruy . . . . . .45 

KaffrJoosif 50 

Damoon . . . . . .50 

Scias . . . . . .80 

Cabool and Tire . . . . .30 

Shefmar . . . . . .120 

Megdel 60 




4 Tatnooz, 5599. 

It is my intention to acquaint Sir Moses with all that 
occurred to me previously to, and up to the time of, my 
becoming acquainted with the state of the Holy Land, and to 

* The sheep brings forth young every five months. 

t In all the districts here referred to tobacco may be grown. 


show that even in its desolation it might still be flowing with 
milk and honey,' for those who should engage in its cultiva- 
tion. A long time ago my attention was directed to the con- 
dition of our brethren in this region ; and then thought I, 
" How much longer are they to receive bread to consume 
which makes them blush ? " I here allude to the relief 
afforded them by Israelites in exile, which may be considered 
really the bread of poverty, inasmuch as some of it is con- 
tributed by Israelites who are of the poorest. This aid is so 
diminished by the expenses of its transmission to this spot, 
that when it is received it is scarcely adequate to relieve 
one fourth part of the wants to which it is applied. 

I feel prompted to ask, Why should our condition be worse 
than that of Christians in the Holy Land ? for they have 
no inheritance in the soil, nor have they absolute possession 
of any portion of it any more than we ; yet the Christians 
here derive a sufficient sustenance from the fruitfulness of 
the land, and the abundance of its seas. It has been my 
chief endeavour, from earliest youth, to live by the labour of 
my hands, and to help to sustain those who devote their lives 
to the study of the holy law. I engaged in commercial 
pursuits, intending to make a journey once a year into 
Egypt : and on my return I sold the goods I had purchased 
to shopkeepers, but, that I might duly attend to the law, I 
refrained from appearing in any shop myself. On my second 
return from Egypt, I was exposed to great danger, for my 
preservation from which I have to give thanks to the 
Almighty. But my father, seeing that we had not the means 
requisite to extend our business, so as to derive from it 
incomes which might support our families in comfort, and 
especially as the necessaries of life and the articles of com- 
merce were at that time very expensive, and the roads to 
Egypt in a state of great peril, would not sanction my going 
thither any more : two years have now elapsed since I gave 
up that undertaking. 


My present employment is connected with the reconstruc- 
tion of the former ruin of Rabbi Yehooda Hakhasid, which I 
deem a good action. I am mindful so to inspect the work 
that nothing, not a half -penny, be lost by miscalculation in 
the purchase of the building materials. I have refused com- 
pensation for my labours, and have also declined taking 
charge of any of the money for defraying the expenses, that 
my conscience should be clear before God and before Israel, 
trusting in the Almighty that I should obtain a maintenance 
through some other channel. The director of the work, on 
seeing my task thus performed with zealous rectitude, pre- 
sented me with, as a reward, a seat in the great study, called 
the " Consolation of Zion," and secured it by a written deed 
to me and my heirs for ever. I supplicate the Almighty 
incessantly that I may always find some mode of sustaining 
myself in the Holy Land, and that no circumstance may 
arise to draw me hence, hurting my feet on foreign ground, 
and my heart by having to knock for succour at the doors of 
the benevolent. 

Last year I purchased some wheat from a certain person, 
whom I will call Manzoor, in one of the villages here, and I 
then observed that all the peasants of the village were as 
slaves under that person, he taking nearly all that the land 
produced. I inquired of the peasants how that person ac- 
quired so powerful a position, and from them I had the in- 
formation which follows. In that district there is much land 
fit for cultivation ; and whoever has the means to erect a 
house in the village, and to purchase about six oxen for the 
plough, the cost of which is about two thousand five hundred 
Turkish piastres, or fifty ducats ; who also appoints a person 
to do the necessary manual labour, providing him with seed, 
may obtain an income which, after the subjoined conditions 
are complied with, may be deemed very profitable. These 
are, to give a fifth part of the fruits to the pasha, as a tax on 
the land, and a fifth part to the labourer. The cost of food 


for so many oxen during- the period of four months in which 
there is no pasture for them, is about three thousand piastres, 
in seasons when things bear a fair price. The three fifths 
remaining to him, subject to this last outlay, provide, as said 
before, a very considerable income. Manzoor had built several 
houses, and had conducted all the other requisite operations 
on a large scale, having also constructed stalls for the cattle 
and for sheep, and thus he had acquired great wealth. 

Reflecting on these facts, I said to myself, " This agricul- 
tural business in the Holy Land must be an advantageous 
one." I wished to engage in it myself, but my own property 
consisted of only three thousand piastres. It happened, how- 
ever, that I met an Israelite belonging to our Portuguese 
brethren, who sometimes transacted business with Manzoor. 
and I proposed to him that we should purchase six oxen, 
and place them under the care of Manzoor, having first 
induced him to enter into partnership with us, and to add six 
more oxen to them, and to appoint peasants to till the 
ground. This he agreed to ; Manzoor also was agreeable to 
the plan, we paying him six thousand piastres to cover the 
expenses of the seed and the maintenance of the oxen. It 
was further stipulated, that the produce should be divided 
between us equally, and a correct statement furnished by 
Manzoor after the harvest, of the expenditure, so that if any 
portion of the six thousand piastres remained it should be 
rendered back to us. He had the charge of all my available 
property, and thus I became his partner. 

When the season arrived for reaping the corn, I went to 
the village, and remained in the neighbourhood several days, 
anxious to see that the work was properly executed. Some 
of the inhabitants, remarking my attention to the business, 
said to me, " Why do you put yourself to so much trouble 
and expense in watching here so constantly, exposed to the 
heat of the day and the extreme cold of the night, when all 
the land you have in cultivation is only half a f adan ? you 


ought to have taken up two f adans at the least (consisting of 
twelve oxen), and have furnished money for the necessary 
expenses of such a quantity. In that case, this undertaking 
would have sufficed for the full maintenance of you and your 
family, and would have been worth the attention which you 
now show." My answer to these observations was, that what 
I was now doing was only an experiment ; but that the 
ensuing year I would, with G-od's leave, act upon their 

After this short conversation I went to Manzoor, and 
desired him, on behalf of my partner as well as myself, to 
furnish me with an account of the expenses of our specula- 
tion. He told me he would do so when the harvest was 
over, " and then," added he. " I will divide the oxen also, for 
I do not like partnership." His reason for wishing to dis- 
solve our contract was a disinclination to have any of his 
proceedings overlooked in the manner in which I had been 
employing myself : indeed, he wished to do everything in his 
own way. From this I concluded he must have heard of the 
conversation between me and the people just referred to 
respecting my future agricultural operations. He was an 
avaricious man, and it seemed that he could not endure to 
see another derive any benefit from the soil. I certainly 
felt much chagrined, and I reminded him that the sustenance 
of every human creature depended on the will of the Al- 

Then was I moved to pour forth my troubled spirit to the 
eternal God of the world. " Lord ! " I ejaculated, " this 
man is rich in cattle, in sheep, and in asses ; he has built 
himself many houses, which are fair to see, and I, thy poor 
servant, whose all, a mere trifle, was embarked in this matter, 
I. trusting in thy beneficence for success, am now envied by 
the man who would debar me from the recompense to which 
industry is justly entitled. Glorify thy name, Lord, for the 
snke of thy servants by whom it is glorified ; succour me in 


this strait, Lord, that I may not be dependent on the 
favour of this envious man." 

Before I departed from the village, it so happened one 
day that I met a peasant belonging to another village, named 
Gezaze, who told me that the land around that place was of 
a much better quality than the fields to which my present 
venture related. This peasant, having married a woman of 
this village who was reluctant to quit her family, was in 
some sort compelled to dwell here ; but he suggested to me 
that I should send some oxen to Gezaze, and occupy some 
land there as soon as the present harvest should be 

When I was about to return to Jerusalem, as my father 
limited my stay till the last month of Sivan, in order that I 
might not neglect the general prayers of the congregation 
(and the necessity for attending to these devotions compelled 
me to appoint another person to watch the harvest in my 
stead, whose expenses, in addition to the others, nearly 
swallowed up all my profits), there came a messenger from 
my father, to inform me that Sir Moses had delighted him 
with his benign consideration, in seeking to benefit the 
country by the very means which had lately so much en- 
grossed my attention. At this intelligence I fervently gave 
praise to the Almighty for His merciful interposition in our 
behalf at so important a crisis. I saw, by the tenour of my 
father's letter, that it was your wish, Sir, to establish the 
prosperity of our holy institutions by the occupation of the 
land, to be effected by our cultivating it, and that I should 
ascertain what villages were most suitable for the abode of 
those of our brethren who might undertake to labour on the 
soil. Upon this, I at first thought of the villages bordering 
on the Jordan. Here, however, though the land is very 
good, agricultural pursuits are attended with much hazard, 
for in the vicinity of the Jordan there are many Arabs who 
support themselves chiefly by plunder ; and to such an extent 
C C 


are their depredations carried on, that the Moslemin are 
afraid to approach them. The villages suitable in the plain 
near G-haze and Ramie I knew to be in a very wretched 
condition, for as there are no building materials close at 
hand, stones and wood have to be brought from a considerable 
distance ; in lieu of wood for fuel, indeed, the villagers are 
often obliged to burn the excrement of cattle to dress their 
food ; consequently there could be no places in which any 
Israelites could comfortably dwell. While my thoughts were 
thus roving, the suggestion of the peasant recurred to me, 
and though it was night when I received the letter, I went 
forth at once into the village in which my fadans were lodged, 
and inquired of the man what were the dimensions and 
precise advantages of the village of G-ezaze. 

He assured me that its advantages were numerous, and 
that few villages beside had so many. He further suggested 
that I should go thither in person, in order that I might be 
fully satisfied ; I thought it well to do so. It is situated 
seven hours' distance from Jerusalem, and three from Ramie. 
I found it had not been misrepresented. In former years it 
must have been populous, for I saw the ruins of very ex- 
tensive buildings. It has three wells, supplied by living 
springs, just as those are in the neighbourhood of Jaffa ; and, 
contiguous to these wells, gardens and plantation-grounds 
could be laid out, and, in process of time, rendered as beau- 
tiful as those on the road leading to Jaffa. The lands of 
this village are bounded by two rivulets. The course of one 
stream might be diverted into a valley, which, if the project 
should be sanctioned by Sir Moses, might be converted into 
an immense reservoir, in which fish (first brought from the 
sea, which approaches to within five hours' distance of the 
spot) might be bred with great abundance. There are rem- 
nants of a water-mill on the banks of the other stream, built 
and worked, probably, many ages past. The grounds per- 
taining to the village are extensive, and five hundred oxen 


could be fully employed in the ploughing of that part suited 
for grain, which may be more easily sown than in that place 
of which I have recently spoken as being the scene of my 
first experiment. There is also good pasture for sheep and 
cattle, and the young of the sheep and cattle that I saw 
were in excellent condition. According as the choice of the 
occupant might dictate, vines and olive-trees could be suc- 
cessfully reared in this spot, which, in addition to its other 
good qualities, abounds with , herbs on which bees thrive, 
and the bees there are to be seen in numerous and heavy 
swarms, a circumstance very unusual near other localities. 

I was informed by some of the inhabitants, that anciently 
there were vineyards here, equal in their produce to those at 
Jerusalem, but that the lax administration of the laws by the 
government had permitted robbers to interrupt the labours 
of the husbandman so grievously as at length to cause the 
land to be left almost desolate. But they have already begun 
to cultivate the vine and the olive ; I personally saw some 
samples of a very good quality. 

Not far from G-ezaze there are some rocky eminences, from 
which stone and chalk for building may be obtained for the 
construction of dwelling-houses, such as those of the towns ; 
there is also a forest, from which timber for building and 
domestic uses may be obtained in abundance. The houses 
forming this village are built like those of Zafed. 

I made inquiries concerning the proprietorship of the 
houses, and the fields and arable ground, in the course of which 
I spoke to the sheikhs of the village. The sheikhs told me 
that they had seen the place when it was nothing but a ruin, 
about thirty years ago. They themselves had rendered it 
habitable as I now saw it. The property of the fields is vested 
in the pasha, who takes as rent a fifth part of their produce. 
The sheikhs occupy as much land as require five f adans, and 
from this they derive their support ; they have not to render 
any portion of the produce to the pasha ; this exemption is 

cc 2 


made on account of their exertions for the improvement of 
the village. Sheikh Sai'd farmed the pasha's fifth for the 
annual sum of fifteen thousand Turkish piastres, and one 
hundred khabias of barley.* The inhabitants have to pay a 
tax of thirty-five piastres for every male child above the 
age of fifteen years; this is in their language called the 
Nemry. The village contains about sixty-five men, some of 
whom are old and too feeble to work. 

Now, if Sir Moses should deem it proper to bring all the 
land of Grezaze into cultivation, one hundred f adans would be 
requisite ; and as each f adan usually requires the attendance 
of one man, consequently there would be employment for a 
hundred men. At present there are but thirty fadans in 
use ; ten of these were given by the Turks to the people of 
some town. It is essentially necessary, in making any arrange- 
ment for the occupation of the land, to procure a firman 
from the Sultan, and one also from the Viceroy of Egypt, to 
the effect that no man belonging to the village, or in the 
employ of Sir Moses, be forced into the military service. 
When the time approaches in which the annual con- 
scription is accomplished, the inhabitants leave the village 
through fear, and thus the cultivation is quite neglected, 
and thieves find no hindrance in committing their misdeeds 
at night. 

I was told by the present sheikhs, that while the village 
was under, the direction of Sheikh Said, he made such 
arrangements as protected the inhabitants from the military 
impressment. Unfortunately for Sai'd, this year something 
irregular was discovered in the management of his office, and 
he has been removed to await the pasha's judgment for his 
offence ; consequently he has no further controul here, and the 
villages have again been subjected to the conscription. The 
sheikhs gave to understand that they wished for protection 
from this liability, and that if Sir Moses could guarantee the 

A ihabia contains sixteen roobas ; a rooba contains two rottles. 


people exemption from enlistment, they would entirely devote 
themselves to his service, with everything they possessed. 

I have now to observe to Sir Moses that the Shemita. or 
year of release, is near, the year 5600; therefore, if Sir 
Moses wishes to purchase the land entirely from the govern- 
ment, we, the Israelites, should not be permitted to cultivate 
all the fields, not even through the medium of other people ; 
but if Sir Moses should only undertake to rent a certain 
portion of the land by paying one fifth of its produce to the 
pasha, by which arrangement it would still be the property of 
its former possessors, then we, as well as anyone else, should 
be allowed to do with it as we might choose. Our best plan 
would be to place our oxen under the care of the sheikh of 
the village, who ostensibly would engage peasantry for the 
manual labour. One fifth of the whole produce would be 
first set apart for the pasha, another fifth would be deducted 
for the labourer's recompense, and the other three fifths 
would be ours, subject to a small further deduction to com- 
pensate the sheikh for any trouble he might have taken in 
the transaction. Should Sir Moses not entertain the same 
view of the affair, I am apprehensive that no other efficient 
plan could be carried out. 

The custom of the country is to plough the ground in the 
month of Nisan, and plant those seeds which yield their 
fruit in the summer, like poppy, from which oil is made, and 
doora, or Indian-corn. The harvest of these fruits is in the 
months of Ab and Elul. In the winter season the soil from 
which these articles are raised is again ploughed, for the 
reception of wheat, barley, and various kinds of lentils, 
which grow during the winter. These ripen in the month 
of lyar. Ground so used is termed in Arabic krdb. Fields in 
which nothing but wheat and similar grain is raised, and 
ploughed and sown in the month of Nisan, would become 
comparatively barren, for they would be greatly deteriorated 
by the thorns and weeds which would thus be suffered to take 


root, if they should not be ploughed in the month of Nisaii 
now approaching, which is the year of release, and we shall 
not have the krab-fields (whose fruits are blessed) the fol- 
lowing year. When the year of Shemita is over, Sir Moses 
might purchase the village if he should incline so to do, and 
it could be named, in allusion to himself, " Kef ar Moshe ; " 
the court, or area of those buildings he might erect could be 
called, in reference to Lady Montefiore, " Khazer Yehoodit." 
The respect we owe to her claims from us some such monu- 
ment to preserve her for ever in our minds. May she be 
blessed with all the blessings her virtues merit ! If my sug- 
gestion in this matter were fulfilled, your names would be 
held up to the veneration of the Israelites here through all 
time, and would exist for good and blessed purposes ; and 
thus would be accomplished that passage in the Scriptures, 
which says, " I shall give them a hand (a take-hold) within my 
house and my walls, which is better than sons and daughters." 
However, if, with G-od's favour, we reach other Shemitot, 
then we shall do the Mizwah of Shemita according to our 
holy law, and the Almighty will bestow his blessings on us ; 
as it is written, " I shall order my blessings, and they will 
produce for the year," &c. 

I have to acquaint Sir Moses with one other important 
fact. The present year is a favourable one. The pasha has 
not yet taken possession of his fifth, because the corn is still 
in the gleans ; and if Sir Moses were to contract with the 
pasha for his share, as Sheikh Sai'd did, it would furnish 
bread sufficient for all our congregation here, not a child 
excepted. I have been told by some of the people here that 
any one contracting for the pasha's share, might by it realise 
one thousand ducats profit ; and this I am assured is not an 
exaggeration of the case, as many merchants have been en- 
deavouring to make terms with the pasha. Therefore it is 
advisable to commence the work with the least possible 
delay, whatever impediments there may be ; thus will be 


fulfilled the passage in Scripture, "Thy beginning will be 
with trouble, but thy end will be with great comfort." 

Sir Moses, I do not forget that I am still young in years, 
and that you have passed through many, and have had much 
experience. It would have been natural for me to have been 
diffident of disclosing my opinion on these matters to you ; 
but I conceived it was by the Almighty's ordinance that I 
had employed myself in such, and that it was still his decree 
that I should make the investigation I have done to supply 
you with such information as you sought for. I have done 
my best to procure an accurate estimate of the expenses 
for the first year, that the basis of an establishment 
might be laid in that village, from which all might derive 
a comfortable maintenance, as from a bank. This asser- 
tion will be more fully borne out by the account hereto 

When, after leaving Gezaze, I arrived at Jerusalem, I was 
made acquainted with the sentiments of our brethren there. 
Some asked if it were possible that children of Israel could 
reside in the villages ; " for," said they, "can a man dwell 
in the same cave with a serpent 1 " * Others wished to be 
informed if it were possible that Israelites could engage in 
agriculture.f And one party said, " Even if the best accom- 
modation should be offered to us, we would not break up 
from our homes at Jerusalem."J I replied to them, that I 

* This expression alludes to the Arabs, who always show much 
animosity to the Israelites, and who form the major portion of the 
inhabitants of the villages. 

t The observation respecting the impracticability of agriculture to 
them was on account of the monopoly enjoyed for so many years by 
people of other faiths in the East, and who doubtless would throw all 
the Impediments they could in the way of Israelites. 

t Most of the Jews at present in Jerusalem have gone thither for 
safety. Having been exposed to great danger and many annoyances in 
the places where they dwelt before, they had been at considerable 
trouble to convey their effects to this asylum, and to form the establish- 


had seen the land proposed for their occupation with my own 
eyes : " and," said I, " it is a fertile land, a land, in the lan- 
guage of the Scripture, really flowing with milk and honey ; 
and, if the impulse to occupy it comes from the Almighty, 
let us go up, and we shall surely prosper, and every one of 
us will be settled in peace, as the following particulars will 

In the first place, we shall do well to choose from among 
our own congregation ten righteous, G-od-fearing men, who 
are well acquainted with the Arabic tongue. The duties of 
these should be to superintend the general disposal of the 
land, a subject that demands considerable attention, as I 
myself can testify from what I witnessed in the village 
belonging to Manzoor ; and to appoint proper hours for 
studying the law, especially those parts of it which relate to 
this region, the land of our forefathers ; and they, and their 
families shall dwell in the village. These persons shall have, 
in payment for their services, a tenth part of every benefit 
derived from the undertaking. They shall have wherewith 
to maintain a housekeeper, and it shall be ordered, that if one 
should become unable to perform his duties, his son, if he 
have one, or son-in-law, shall take his place. All the other 
housekeepers shall be on the same footing with the other 
members of the community, and it shall further be stipulated 
that the community shall have power to expel any one guilty 
of misconduct from the village, and to place another in his 

Secondly. To these ten persons shall be attached one, 
appointed by the favour of our benefactor, Sir Moses, whose 
office shall be to keep the books correctly, in which the 
receipts and disbursements of the business shall be carefully 

ment by which they secure what degree of comfort they have. A sudden 
idea of suffering a state of things similar to what they formerly had to 
complain of, in the event of their removing again into the open country, 
very probably dictated this declaration. 


entered. Moreover, three directors shall be appointed to 
dwell in Jerusalem, in whom shall be vested the distribution 
of the revenues of this village to the members of our con- 
gregation, for the maintenance of their households. There 
shall be appointed a treasurer, to whom all the proceeds on 
the undertaking shall be duly forwarded ; and two auditors 
shall have control over his accounts. Another person shall 
be appointed, at the discretion of Sir Moses, to arrange the 
accounts between these and the directors, to whom the chief 
superintendent of the labourers in the village shall be 

Thirdly. Every scholar shall devote a certain portion of 
each day to his studies, and shall join in the holy worship in 
the house for study, especially that called " the Consolation 
of Zion ; " and shall be in attendance each night in the house 
of meditation. Every day, after the usual recital of the 
forms of divine worship, prayer shall be read for the welfare 
of Sir Moses, and of his virtuous and beneficent lady. A lec- 
turer shall be appointed for the instruction of those who are 
not of the degree of scholars, and he shall read to them 
every day a certain portion of the law, to be regulated by the 
capacity of their intellects ; and his task shall be performed 
in the morning immediately after the conclusion of the usual 
service, and in the evening between the recital of the Minkha 
and Marib prayers. In the middle of the day such persons 
are employed in the business of the representatives of our 
congregation, according to what orders are on hand from 
their president. From this body four parties of men shall be 
taken to form watches over the effects of the community; 
each watch shall do duty for one month at the time, the four 
taking the duty in rotation ; and the other three, while not 
thus engaged, shall assist in any work requisite to be done, 
as the work will be very onerous in proportion to the numbers 
to perform it. The entire produce of the establishment shall 
be sent to, and placed in the charge of, the chief superin- 


tendent in town, that it may be equitably divided, under the 
sanction of the leaders, amongst all the congregation accord- 
ing to the wants of each individual, or each household. The 
three watches not on watching duty shall be at the service 
of the directors, to bear any messages or parcels to any one 
to whom they may have occasion to send ; in fine, whatever 
work it is necessary to do for the benefit of the community 
it shall be incumbent on them to execute to the best of their 
ability, so that none of the students be improperly diverted 
from their studies. 

Unfortunately, there are many widows. Some of them 
may be capable of rendering some assistance to the commu- 
nity, and to contribute to the comfort of the students. They 
shall also be divided into separate bodies, and in rotation go 
forth to the pasture-land and milk the cows and goats, and 
do anything else in connection with such business of which 
they may be capable. The orphans shall be placed under 
good guardianship, and their natural capacities properly 
attended to ; they shall be distributed amongst the house- 
keepers, so that they shall be reckoned as belonging to the 
various households. 

All regulations enumerated in the preceding paragraphs it 
shall be the especial care of the seven most eminent Israelites 
in the city or town to carry into effect, so that every member 
of the community may dwell in peace in his appointed situa- 

It is the earnest request of our congregation that the names 
delivered to Sir Moses, those in the list of persons who were 
included in this project, be written by Sir Moses in a book, so 
that the village described, and its appurtenances, may remain 
in the possession of themselves and their offspring till the 
great day of our redemption, and that no foreigner may be 
allowed to meddle with our affairs, unless he conform 
implicitly to the foregoing regulations. 

I wish Sir Moses to understand that the business of plough- 


ing and sowing cannot be performed by Israelites exclusively, 
because much of it requires to be done by persons well skilled 
in such ; even the people of the village are not alike in their 
abilities for agriculture. But, setting apart the more difficult 
business of the agriculturist, it is customary to add to every 
two men a shepherd, to assist them in various minor affairs ; 
and in the harvest season five labourers are required to every 
f adan, to reap and tie up the corn in sheaves, and to convey 
it to the threshing-floor. It is usual to pay these labourers 
in gleans, and they have, in addition to their pay, also the 
privilege of gleaning the fields after the owner's portion has 
been taken away, which emolument is to them very consider- 
able. All such labour as I have here described Israelites may 
perform as well as any others. 

When these regulations had been proposed to our brethren 
at Jerusalem, and distinctly explained, they with one voice 
prayed to the Almighty, that they might meet the approba- 
tion of Sir Moses, and that he might ever prosper. Such of 
the learned as are competent to engage in the project at once 
gave it their consent to remove into the village and dwell 
there. And I myself respectfully request to be appointed to 
some office there, so that I might make it my chief place of 
abode. I should like to have the inspection of the measures 
taken for the accomplishment of this scheme, especially if 
there were anything to be negotiated with the governor, 
in which case I could be of great service, as, I think, having 
already more insight into agricultural pursuits than most 
of my brethren, and being also interpreter to the congre- 
gation in the Holy City. I trust the Almighty would con- 
tinue so endow me with vigour to secure success in such 
matters, because, though as one of the learned I might have 
derived my support from the same source as the others, I 
sought, and the Almighty blessed my endeavours, to main- 
tain myself by the labour of my own hands. I prefer sitting 
on the threshold, though even in a village, especially as the 


end I strive for is a good one in the sight of the Lord the 
restoration of the land of our forefathers. 

The foregoing are the sentiments of the congregation, ar- 
ranged by the undersigned, who hopes for the Almighty's 
succour, through the instrumentality of Sir Moses Monte- 
fiore, whom may the Almighty ever preserve. 


the son of Eabbi Abraham Shelomo Salman, the son-in-law 
of the Rabbi Tobiah, head of the assembly, and director of 
the congregation at Jerusalem, at the epoch of the first 
arrival of Sir Moses in the Holy City. 



100 fadans (each fadan in this part consisting of six 

oxen, valued at 100 rials) 10,000 

100 asses (an ass will be required to each fadan for 

the carriage of the agricultural instruments) . . 800 
Instruments for tilling and threshing .... 200 
Four months' provender for the oxen where there is 

no pasture (necessary in the first year) . . . 2,500 

Stalls for cattle and sheep 150 

The purchase of 200 cows, for breeding and for giving 

milk (all these may find sufficient pasture) . . 2,000 
600 sheep and goats, at 7 rials a-piece .... 4,200 
Dwelling-places for the labourers . . . .100 
Houses, provided with an area for the Israelites that 

would reside there to superintend the labourers, 

and other matters connected with the undertaking . 1,000 
For repairing the three wells in the village . . 300 
Three horses for the convenience of those having to 

superintend places 150 

Carried forward . . . .20,800 


Brought forward .... 20,800 

Fifty camels, for carrying into the storehouses the 
produce of the land during the harvest (these, 
during the other portion of the year might be pro- 
fitably employed in the removal of various sorts of 
goods from place to place) 2,000 

Total of rials 22,800 

The expenses enumerated in the foregoing table are chiefly 
required for the first year only. In the ensuing years the 
whole of them might be defrayed out of the net proceeds 
of the business. 

After setting apart the pasha's due, the labourers' Rials, 
share, and that required for the next year's seed, the 
wheat, 5,000 khabias from each f adan, would realise 10,000 
(In any one year, however, in which the land might 
not be so productive as it usually is, that which is 
obtained from it would command a price higher than 
ordinary, so that the profits would not greatly vary.) 
Barley, subject to the same deductions just mentioned. 

20 khabias from each f adan, would realise . . 2,500 
Beans and lentils, 400 khabias from each fadan . . 800 
The foregoing are the fruits of what would have been 

planted and sown in the winter season. 
The fruits arising of the labours in the summer season 

would be as follows : 

Doora, 50 khabias from each fadan .... 6,000 
Poppy for oil, 20 khabias from each fadan . . . 5,000 

Total of rials 24,300 

The 600 goats, also, would yield milk sufficient for the 
making of 3,000 rottles of cheese. And the cows would 
yield a considerable quantity of milk ; of this milk the pea- 
sants make butter, and prepare a kind of food they call 
xhannrefke. They likewise make para cheese from it to sell 
in the towns. 


The object we should chiefly seek to obtain, is the Al- 
mighty's blessing on our labours, and the land would be fruit- 
ful under our hands. 

I think it not amiss to observe again, that the hire of the 
camels, when not employed on the grounds, would realise a 
considerable profit, though I cannot specify its various items. 
The wood with which the country adjoining abounds, would 
furnish an abundance of fuel, much of which could be con- 
veyed by the camels for the use of all our congregation; and 
from the cattle and sheep a sufficiency of fresh meat might 
be obtained for the same. What income would be derivable 
from the sale of sheep and cattle as they yearly multiplied 
their species cannot be accurately computed ; much would 
depend on G-od's blessing. The wells so fertilise ground for 
gardens, that vegetables sufficient for the consumption of all 
our congregation could easily be raised both in summer and 
winter. It is, above all, worthy of notice in this calculation, 
that half the wheat we could raise would supply bread for 
five hundred souls, who would in no shape lack the other 
necessaries and most of the reasonable luxuries of life ; which 
would enable us to sit peaceably and meditate on the holy 
law, and duly worship the Almighty. 




Jerusalem, 2nd Tamooz, 5599. 

To the joy of our heart and the light of our eyes. 

We heard it with our own ears, from his own mouth. 

that the chief design of our dignified benefactor in visiting 

this land was to show a paternal compassion to his brethren. 

the Israelites who dwell in the vineyard, which is by right 


our inheritance from the Almighty Lord of Hosts, by taking 
measures to supersede the necessity for being sustained by the 
uncertain stream of gifts flowing to us from Europe, and 
which are only the gifts of men ; and to enable everyone to 
sit under his own fig-tree, as in former days. We then in- 
voked on his head the blessings of Zion, the source of all 
blessings, for there the Almighty ordained that blessings 
should ever dwell. It is always proper to give thanks to the 
Lord, and therefore do I embrace this opportunity for ren- 
dering to Him my gratitude, forasmuch as He has shown to 
me many mercies. 

Twenty-four years have I now been wandering about on 
the great field of the world, twelve of which have, in the 
city of Jerusalem, been devoted to a holy service, inasmuch 
as I have borne the burthen of a pure congregation in serving 
the Polish and German congregation, whose lives I pray God 
to preserve. The roads and various places of importance in 
this region are better known to me than to other people who 
live a discursive life here, therefore I have thought fit to 
communicate such information to Sir Moses as might enable 
him to profit by embarking in agricultural pursuits. The 
nature of the lands best adapted for his purpose I shall 
presently explain ; and I have to solicit his indulgence for 
occupying his attention by my statement too long; this I 
doubt not he will readily accord me, as I am trying to fulfil 
his own desire, and much is required to be said to furnish all 
the intelligence necessary on this subject. 

The first thing necessary to be done in "commencing opera- 
tions will be to procure a firman from the pasha, securing the 
people in those districts which your dignity might take in 
charge, from impressment into the military service, and from 
the payment of taxes. On account of your illustrious repu- 
tation and influence, the Viceroy of Egypt would concede 
exemption from the military service, and might also forego 
his claim to one-fifth of the produce of the soil, as a portion 


of the State revenue ; this fifth is exacted from wheat, barley 
and also a kind of corn, called in Arabic doora. Doora-bread 
is chiefly used by the peasantry ; and if Sir Moses should be 
so successful as to procure for us such an exemption, the 
benefit which would accrue therefrom would be beyond any- 
thing of which words can convey an idea. 

It is essential to acquaint Sir Moses that much of the agri- 
cultural work could not be achieved by Israelites alone, for 
two reasons ; the first, the observance of the holy sabbath 
would interfere with the customs of those concerned in the 
business who might be of another faith ; the second, the 
Israelites, as they now are, possess not strength equal to 
every task in connection with ploughing and sowing. The 
mode in which agricultural affairs are conducted by the 
inhabitants of this district I will now describe, and my 
information shall be arranged in sections. 

In the first place, the Pasha of Egypt owns all the land of 
the district, and he takes one-fifth of the produce, as before 
stated. The quantity of land tilled is computed by the f adan 
(a fadan here consisting of six oxen). There are many 
expenses involved in cultivation ; first, the purchase of the 
oxen, the price of wheat, and other kinds of grain for seed, 
provender for the cattle, as in this country there is no pasture 
except during three months in the year, and then the heat is 
so intense that all the herbage is soon parched up. In the 
winter the cattle are fed with straw, and grains of cotton- 
seed. These expenses can in nowise be varied, except by 
allowing the labourer as a recompense, instead of wages in 
money, a certain portion of the produce, which arrangement 
generally induces him to render his services faithfully. His 
share of the business is well known to be a difficult one. 
However, if Sir Moses should secure from the pasha an 
immunity fr'om all the taxes specified herein, many of our 
brethren would make strenuous exertions, and the labourers 
probably would work for less. 


Secondly, it will be most important to form a contract 
with the pasha of that nature termed booyooruldi, specifying 
the number of years we are to hold the land ; because the 
country may possibly pass under another's control. Pre- 
viously to the present pasha's assuming the government, we 
lived in a very precarious manner, and even in our bed- 
rooms our lives were not safe, because, as it is well known, 
the children of Edom are savages. I therefore trust that 
Sir Moses will endeavour to effect an arrangement to which 
the governors shall give their express sanction, and espe- 
cially the Sultan, so that it may be permanent, and our abode 
in the land of life undisturbed. 

Thirdly, instructions should be given by the pasha 
relative to our affairs to the Mooselim of Jerusalem and of 
Ramie, because the villages adapted for our purposes border 
on both places, so that when we should require any soldiers 
for the protection of our property, they might be obtained 
from either place without difficulty. Three soldiers in each 
village would be force sufficient ; and if we were free from the 
military service altogether, we should require no such pro- 
tection at all, as the peasants in our employ would willingly 
perform all the necessary duties of watching. 

Fourthly, we ought to have the privilege of possessing 
arms in the villages, for driving off beasts of prey, par- 
ticularly as much of our property would consist of cattle 
and sheep. It is well known that all the weapons formerly 
possessed by the inhabitants have been taken away by the 

Fifthly, a guarantee should be given us from the govern- 
ment, that no soldiers be permitted to take any of our horses 
or asses for the State service, and that our beasts of burthen, 
when found in towns, should be liable to no such seizure. 
Straw, wood, and coals belonging to us, should also be pro- 
tected from similar appropriation. 

Each f adan consists of six oxen ; the cost of six oxen would 
D D 


be about 2,000 piastres. An ox of the best quality would cost 
500 piastres. On the ground of one fadan might be sown 
'wheat, barley, doora, beans, lentils, and karselle (a kind of 
grain eaten by camels), and in the lands of the villages which 
I recommend, those near Ramie, a great deal of poppy might 
be sown, which is an article of great utility in this country, 
and very profitable to trade in, as oil, both for the dressing of 
food and for burning, is extracted from it ; and in the same 
districts, cotton might be advantageously reared. The ex- 
penses attending the working of one fadan, including various 
sorts of seed, food for the cattle during the winter, and agri- 
cultural tools, would amount to 3,000 piastres. This statement 
is perfectly in accordance with the customs of the region, so 
greatly celebrated in our holy law. 

In the winter season they sow wheat, barley, beans, and 
lentils. This deposit involves much expense, because for 
wheat and barley a great deal of seed is required. The most 
profitable crops are those arising from the deposit of seed in 
the summer, as that is comparatively small. Doora and 
cotton are sown in the summer, and these plants thrive from 
the dew, which, in the absence of rain throughout the 
summer, is indeed a blessing. 

In ordinary years the produce of the ground of one fadan 
is as follows : 

A khabia contains thirty rottles ; the measure of a rottle, 
in the Holy City, is two okas and one rooba ; an oka contains 
four hundred drachms. Ten khabias of wheat are sown to the 
fadan, and their product is forty, and this quadruple product 
may be affirmed of the other sorts of grain. The product of 
some articles is five and six-fold ; but in one of the blessed 
years the fruits of the agriculturist are ten and fifteen times 
the quantity of his deposit. Every sixth year is generally 
one of such abundance, by the Almighty's blessing. The 
present year dates the sixth from the last remarkably 
abundant year, and I have been assured, by a man of honest 


character here in Jerusalem, who has been engaged in agri- 
cultural pursuits these last five years, the produce of the 
land this year promises to be fifteen-fold. 

The following is a list of the villages which belong to 
Jerusalem ; they are near to the town, and are in a pros- 
perous condition the blessing of God seems to be upon them. 

Gebbel TOOT. This at present engages twelve fadans ; but 
eight more might be worked with advantage. The neigh- 
bourhood abounds with fruit. It contributes ten thousand 
piastres annually to the pasha's revenue. 

Issabie. This is situated half-a-mile from the above, and, 
like that, has vineyards and other delightful appendages. 
Twelve fadans are worked here, and it contributes twelve 
thousand piastres to the revenue. 

Indte. Another village situated at about two hours' dis- 
tance from Jerusalem. A great quantity of stone is obtained 
from this place for the chief buildings at Jerusalem. It con- 
tains many advantages. Twelve fadans are employed here, 
and its contribution to the revenue is ten thousand piastres. 

Sib. Situated two hours' distance from Jerusalem. The 
lands abound with vines and olives. Its fadans are twenty, 
and the pasha derives from it twenty thousand piastres 

Elimisre. This stands at three hours' distance from Jeru- 
salem, and abounds with olive-trees. It employs thirty 
fadans, and pays thirty thousand piastres annually to the 

These villages, then, it appears, take up eighty-six fadans. 

The cost of a f adan being two thousand piastres, and the 
other expenses three thousand piastres certain (sometimes 
the total amount may be six thousand piastres), we require 
for the commencing of operations five thousand piastres per 
fadan. Total, four hundred and thirty thousand piastres. 

In the vicinity of Ramie is a beautiful plain, celebrated for 
its pasture for sheep and cattle. It also produces cotton 
D D 2 


and poppy, but it has little timber ; nevertheless its ad- 
vantages are numerous. Though a large plain, called in 
Arabic Blades, there is no risk on it from Bedouin robbers, of 
whom there are vast numbers in the country, who constantly 
carry off corn as well as sheep. It is about six hours' distance 
from Jerusalem. 

The following is a list of the villages adjacent to Ramie. 

Khoolda. To this is attached forty fadans ; it is now in 
the occupation of an Israelite, and he is sowing the ground 
of many fadans. He pays to the pasha the annual sum of 
eleven thousand five hundred piastres, also fifty khabias of 
wheat and doora. At this time the pasha prefers to money a 
fifth part of the produce. 

Gezaze. This is near Khoolda ; it has sixteen fadans, and 
pays to the pasha annually fifteen thousand five hundred 
piastres, seventy-five khabias of wheat, with barley and 

Sidoon, Ynane, Elmanzoor, AbusJioosJie . These villages 
could employ two hundred and twenty fadans and more ; and 
they have good pasture- grounds, which have no equal in all 

The places I have mentioned would yield food sufficient 
for all the population of Jerusalem, and especially if the 
produce of those be included which I stated as being near 
Jerusalem. They are so situated in the middle of the 
country as not to be exposed to much danger from marauders ; 
but it still would be judicious to secure an order from the 
pasha to the governors of Jerusalem and Ramie, to see that 
we were not molested. 

The season for ploughing here, in the vicinity of the Holy 
City, begins in the month of Kislev. I have set my mind on 
G-ebbel Toor as the spot for my operations, and, with God's 
help, and the permission of Sir Moses, I will occupy that 
ground. I intend to commence with another Portuguese, 
who has already been engaged in the business five years. In 


another month it will be time to provide straw and similar 
things necessary for this purpose. 

Sir Moses is aware that both myself and the scribes were 
engaged an entire day in writing the lists.* I am now sitting 
on the ground, not being provided with a table, writing on 
my hand ; therefore my language may not be so correct as I 
should address to Sir Moses ; and I have, on that account, 
to solicit his kind indulgence. I have only endeavoured to 
impart to his honour such knowledge on this subject as I, after 
a careful inquiry, have obtained. I depend on our most worthy 
friend, Dr. Loewe, for having my words arranged in the form 
most fitting for Sir Moses to look at. They are the words of 
one who writes in the gloom of night, and who has no proper 
writing instrument. He is the faithful servant of those 
who are servants of the Almighty, and he bows himself from 
afar to the dignity and purity of heart of him who is our 

Of him do I say, may the Almighty help him with the 
blessings of peace, and send His angel to be his safeguard on 
his way, to bring him to his home in peace. May the merits 
of the Holy Land protect him for ever; and, in his days, may 
Judah and Israel have the prosperity each to sit in his own 
vineyard and under his own fig-tree. These are the words of 
a faithful servant to him who truly worships the Almighty. 


NOTK. There are near Jaffa many pleasant gardens and plantations, 
and there are wine-presses, by which much wine may be obtained. The 
villages there are in good condition, and those who live there, not 
Israelites, are healthy and athletic, having a nourishing sustenance, 
derived from their engagement with the peasantry in agricultural 

* The lists here referred to were those of the poor in Jerusalem of 
various denominations, difference of religious faith not being observed, 
to whom Sir Moses distributed a sum of money for their relief. 



Jerusalem, <ith of Tamooz, 5599. 

With, many blessings and with heartfelt joy we greet Sir 
Moses Montefiore, the beloved friend of his people, and who 
is illustrious amongst nations. We pray the Almighty to 
preserve him in peace, and to grant that his light may shine 
brightly evermore. Amen. 

O Lord, protect him for ever, let thy greatness rest over 
him like a shield, and, in thy infinite grace, elevate his honour 
so that the universe may know it, and grant that he may 
behold with our joy the renovation of our Holy City; because 
he walked in the paths of Zion, which now are desolate and 
in mourning. Yes, fervently do we pray the Lord of Hosts to 
bless him with the felicity of seeing the first kingdom return 
to the daughter of Jerusalem. When that shall come to pass 
then will Moses rejoice at his portion, the recompense of his 
steps in entering the temple of the King. Then will be 
resplendent his fame and merit. Thus blessed will be he who 
fears the Almighty. The horn of his ancestors will be ex- 
alted ; the horn of David will again be lifted up ; the holy 
temple will stand in its splendour as it was wont, in the midst 
of its proper nation. Amen, Amen. 

Lo ! the voice of Jerusalem now resounds in wishing peace 
to his dignity, forasmuch as words, pure as those which have 
seven times passed the ordeal of purification, came from his 
mouth, revealing to us that the Almighty had prompted his 
noble heart to show compassion to his brethren dwelling in 
those places of the Lord at Jerusalem (which are now ob- 
scured), and to those who are dispersed throughout the Holy 
Land. As a bird that leaves its own abode to mingle with its 
kind, so did he quit for a period his birth-place, and brave 


the toils of travel to ascend the mount where dwells the 
Lord of Hosts, that he might behold with his own eyes 
the poverty-stricken and oppressed of his people, who are 
scattered through the towns of Judea and Galilee, where 
existence is constantly in suspense, being sustained by bread 
received from their brethren in foreign and distant lands. 

When Sir Moses beheld our oppressed state, his sympathy 
was excited, and he instantly proceeded to devise means to 
raise pillars by which the house of Israel might support 
itself ; by which they might have a sustenance of bread and 
of water that would never raise a blush on their countenances, 
never make dim the eye, or sick the heart with regret such 
regret as pure hearts must ever feel when they depend for life 
on the industry of their brethren. He undertook to obtain 
for them a secure hold in the land of our forefathers that 
which may be derived from ploughing, sowing, and reaping 
with satisfaction, so that every one may repose in safety, 
worshipping and studying the law under the shade of his own 
vine and his own fig-tree, every one acting according to his 
quality ; those designed for the Almighty's especial service 
perpetuating the knowledge of the holy law, and the others 
tilling the soil, which will yield the best fruits. 

Oh, how greatly did we rejoice when we heard his ingenuous 
and beneficent words, and we straightway invoked upon him 
the blessings of Zion, the source of all blessing. How pleasant 
and how soothing are all the deeds of Sir Moses, and still will 
they continue such. With one accord we have adopted the 
plan which Sir Moses has proposed : and now do we wait for 
the Almighty's succour, through the instrumentality of Sir 
Moses the faithful, and we exclaim, "When shall this 
redemption begin 1 " 

Such are our words, because we are anxious that the coming 
season for ploughing and sowing should not pass away in vain. 
Therefore do we presume to give some advice to Sir Moses on 
this important subject, which we hope he will graciously re- 


ceive. It is essential that he exert all his influence to obtain 
from the ruler of Egypt a firman, giving full powers to Sir 
Moses and his agents to commence the execution of this 
scheme, in the mode already explained to Sir Moses in a letter 
written by our friend, the faithful notary to the Polish and 
German congregations, the learned and esteemed Rabbi 
Aryeh Ashkenazi (whom may Gfod preserve). Should such 
a firman be procured, all the potentates in Europe would 
willingly support Sir Moses with their influence in such an 
undertaking. Then Sir Moses should appoint inspectors to 
watch the working of the project, till a proper establishment 
were formed, and it should be our care to give them all the 
information necessary for selecting fit persons for each kind of 
labour, and fit places for operations, so that the endeavour for 
the renovation of our country should not be fruitless. Our 
instructions to the inspectors and directors of the work would 
be particularly necessary at this period, because the ensuing 
year is the seventh year, the shemita ; and they would learn 
from us so to arrange their business as not to infringe the 
ordinances of the seventh year, which is a very important 

With humility our eyes are now cast upward to heaven, to 
the Lord our God, whose dwelling-place is Zion, that He may 
stretch forth His all-powerful arm in aid of this pure design, 
by which it may come to pass that those brethren of Sir 
Moses who now live in Zion in poverty, may live in their 
fatherland in peace and prosperity, and while earning their 
bread with their own hands, may securely render their 
worship to the Almighty. 

When our united wishes shall have been accomplished, 
then will Sir Moses and his brethren here raise this song of 
thanksgiving and praise to the Almighty with an abundance 
of joy : 

" Blessed be the eternal Lord of Hosts, who failed not to 
send a redeemer to his land, and succour, from the majesty of 


his power, to the offspring of his righteous servants. On the 
head of his people he has placed a helmet, and in his great 
mercy has appointed his servant Moses to exalt the light of 
his resplendent might, and to make it a wonder before all the 
nations of the earth. By the blessing of the Almighty did 
Moses obtain the accomplished, honoured, and most virtuous 
Lady Yehoodit. May all the blessings of ladies in their tents 
rest upon her. 

" And now, Lord of Hosts, God of Israel, who alone dost 
know the misery of our life, cast thine eye, we implore thee, 
on the various habitations of us thy people, for the power of 
helping ourselves is nearly bereft us. Strengthen, Lord, 
the hands of those princes who, by thy mercy, have given 
to us their aid. Be to them, Lord, as an impregnable rock 
and a shelter, that thy nation may not again become the 
prey of violence. From thy transcendant holiness in heaven 
look down upon them ; bless their lot in this life with peace; 
grant that their days in this life may be long, and fill their 
houses with good things from that great store which thou 
alone dost possess. Let the end of their greatness be happier 
than the beginning, so that our friends may not be fatigued 
and discouraged with the compassion shown to us. but be 
incited with a holy desire to promote our welfare in future 

" Thou, Lord dost know the righteousness of their hearts 
and the worthy plans they cherish strengthen them with 
thy great mercies, and show to all men the good effects 
which by righteousness are wrought. Yes, Lord, open to 
them the fountain of thy treasure ; pour upon them water 
therefrom, until we be inspired with thy Holy Spirit, and 
thou dost send to us the righteous and glorious Kedeemer 
whom thou hast promised. Let the kingdom be restored 
to the house which is now laid low, and may glory arise to 
the house of Sir Moses Montefiore throughout the world. 
Amen, Amen." 


Now, thou Moses, upon whom have descended the Al- 
mighty's blessings, according to thy dignity, looking with 
condescension upon others, wilt accept this tribute of our 
respectful gratitude. That the music of our song may be 
soothing to thine ears is our humble and fervent wish. 

May the Almighty extend and elevate thy greatness ; and, 
agreeably to the desire of thy noble soul, may the great 
Redeemer come in thy time, and gather together in one fold 
the scattered children of Israel. Thus fervently do thy ser- 
vants pray, who are now waiting for thy gracious reply. 

Signed by the chief and most distinguished leaders and 
directors of the Portuguese and German congregations in 
the Holy City (which may God restore). 

NATHAN NATA, the Son of 

R. Mendel. 
ARYEH, the Son of R. Ye- 


YESHAYAH, the Son of 
Isakhar Ber, &c. &c. 


Wertheimer, Lea and Co., Printers, Circus Place, London Wall. 



LD2lA-50m-2 '71 

General Library 

University of California